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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Man and Culture" > Contents of Issue є 02/2021
Contents of Issue є 02/2021
Architecture and design
Safronova E.M. - Saint Petersburg period of creativity of P. K. Vaulin (1906-1914) pp. 1-11

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2021.2.35221

Abstract: The subject of this research is the stylistic peculiarities and means of artistic expression of the architectural majolica by Peter Kuzmich Vaulin. The object of this research is the architectural ceramics of Vaulin in facades of the buildings of St. Petersburg in the early XX century. The application of inclusive approach allows tracing correlations between the historical facts and the cultural characteristics of this period. The compositional-artistic analysis, comparative-descriptive method, and imagery-stylistic analysis were used for consideration of the means of artistic expression of architectural ceramics, compositional interaction of the materials and space, and examination of the style and formative peculiarities of ceramics. Detailed analysis is conducted on the Saint Petersburg period of the ceramist P. K. Vaulin, opening of his own ceramic workshop, and active participation in the development of decorative image of St. Petersburg in the early XX century. Special attention is given to the most remarkable works of the master for architectural decoration of the city. Emphasis is placed on his works for the Insurance Company Building “Russia”, which is brilliant example of the harmonious synthesis of majolica and architecture. The conclusion is made that the architectural ceramics of the master made in many ways determined the majolica decoration of St. Petersburg – compositional, textured, color, imagery-stylistic, and plastic peculiarities of the ceramic works of P. K. Vaulin contributed to aesthetic transformation of the environment. The scientific novelty of consists in the thesis that the ceramic workshop of P. K. Vaulin was one of the leading manufacturers of artistic majolica of the indicated period. It is also proven that the Heldwein-Vaulin workshop was able to organically synthesize the heritage of the best traditions of the past with the courage and ambiguity of the Art Nouveau.
Applied culturology
Travin I.A. - Introduction of the reindeer image into the culture of Old Sami people pp. 12-21

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2021.2.35406

Abstract: The subject of this research is the process of introducing the reindeer image into the life and culture of Old Sami people. From the perspective of cultural continuity, the author sets a scientific task to find culturological evidence of the existence of Old Sami people (native speakers of the southern genetic component of the Sami language). The method of conducing this research is the records of décor element, their direct comparison applicable the culture and geographical location of the settlement of Old Sami people. The territory between the Upper Sukhona and the Upper Volga Rivers is selected as geographical location for introduction of the reindeer image into the culture of Old Sami people. The analysis of acquired data gives outlook on the culturological situation in the middle of the 1st millennium BC. The reindeer image is introduced into decorative and applied art, as well as into the culture (lifestyle, household). For getting a broader perspective, the author carries the analysis of toponyms and climatic processes of this period. The novelty of this work consists in application of the synthesis of sciences to the question of comprehension of the cultural processes taking place within the environment of Old Sami people during their dwelling between the Upper Sukhona and the Upper Volga Rivers. The research result consists in acquisition of data that specify the time and place of introduction of the reindeer image into the culture of Old Sami people. The visual match of decorative geometric elements in the Sami decorative patterns and regional decorative ornaments gives grounds on the historically common main cultural heritage in the decorative and applied art of the indicated region. The conclusion lies in finding the culturological evidence of dwelling of the ancient Sami people in the territory between the Upper Sukhona and the Upper Volga Rivers, and the process of cultural development taking place during this period.
Architecture and design
Elkina E.L., Ivanova E.Y. - Scandinavian design of the XXI century: traditions and modernity pp. 22-27

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2021.2.35511

Abstract: This article presents the analysis of Northern design of the XXI century, its achievements, and significance. Design is viewed as a phenomenon that has evolved since the era of industrial revolution. The current trends in environmental design are explored. The author comprehends the years-long trend for environmental friendliness and responsible consumption in design as a whole, as well as the vectors of development of object design in particular. The key approach is the analytical approach, within the framework of which the design development trends are assessed as a part of popular culture. At the same time, their designated purpose to increase the competitiveness of goods on the markets. The design is based on the principles of functionality and feasibility. The goal design is to impose certain qualities upon things, such as aesthetic appeal, convenience, commensurability. Working on the design project implies certain stages: functional analysis, layout, construction, creation of a spatial and graphical structure. Design employs the data from multiple scientific disciplines: semiotics, ergonomics, sociology, aesthetics, philosophy, and culturology. The fundamentals of design originate in the history of art, architecture, modern trends and styles in art,  conceptual art, crafts in terms of industrial production, synthesizing with innovative technologies and materials. Use of the stylistics of Northern design is substantiated by demand for the things of high quality, but inexpensive design.
Culture and cultures
Napreenko L.S. - TPU-design: a range of colors and materials pp. 28-37

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2021.2.35611

Abstract: The object of this research is the transport hub in urban environment, while the subject is the engineering capacity of its design. Based on the previously conducted classification, the author determines the key trends in modern engineering practice, illustrated by the examples of Russian and foreign projects. The goal of this research is to explore the peculiarities of design characteristics of a transport hub in urban environment and give them a comprehensive description. Special attention is turned to characteristics as the range of colors and materials. The author examines the coloristic solution of the compositions of transport hub, as well as the impact of color perception upon the stress level of the passengers. The main results of this research consist in the determined coloristic characteristics of TPU-design depending on the spatial structure of the hub and its location in the urban environment. The novelty lies in the analysis of transport hubs from the perspective of design, as well as in outlining the term “TPU-design”, which characterizes the entirety of the elements of spatial composition and artistic-expressive means. The author's special contribution consists in accumulation and systematization of information on the most interesting projects of transport hubs from the perspective of the concept of “TPU-design”.
Arts and crafts
Lavrov D.E. - P. D. Bazhenov, I. K. Balakin, V. A. Belov Ц the artists-innovators in Russian lacquer crafts of the XX century pp. 38-50

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2021.2.32765

Abstract: The subject of this research is the analysis of works of the three prominent artists of various Russian manufacturing centers of lacquer miniatures of the XX century – P. D. Bazhenov (Palekh), I. K. Balakin (Mstyora), V. A. Belov (Kholuy). The goal of this article consists in the attempt to create a “comparative biography" of the artists of various lacquer crafts, as well as demonstrate fruitful work of the miniaturist-innovator in different fields of art that are not a part of the traditional folk art. Among the manifestations of such innovation, the author indicates that the listed miniature artists found themselves in other fields of fine art, such as easel paintings, stage performance, posters, caricatures. The application of biographical method of research allows focusing attention on experimentation and innovation as the key feature that unites all three masters of lacquer crafts: P. D. Bazhenov in Palekh (1930s), I. K. Balakin in Mstyora (1940s – 1950s), V. A. Belov in Kholuy (1960s – 1970s). The scientific novelty lies in studying the practices of implementation of peculiarities of the aforementioned types of art in the works of lacquer miniatures. The main conclusion consists in the fundamental provision on justification of the artistic pursuit by any artist of folk art, which was oppugned during the Soviet period of the history of Russian folk art.
Culture and cultures
Kalina N.D. - Model of the essential attributes of visual culture as the criteria for studying artifacts and design of new visual images pp. 51-63

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2021.2.34486

Abstract: The object of this research is visual culture in the context of studying artifacts and design of new visual images. The subject of this research is the theoretical reflection on the essential attributed as the general characteristics of visual culture. The author compares the depiction of the artifacts of visual culture artifacts in postmodernism and constructivism. Postmodernism does not aim to build holistic images and reveal the content through visual form. Constructivism, in turn, structures holistic and aesthetically expressive forms of artifacts in unity with the content. The knowledge and meanings in visual artifacts are constructed via graphic spatial and artistic features. Special attention is given to the constructivist approach as a theoretical-methodological substantiation for studying the essential attributes of visual artifacts. Such approach allows the cultural entities to build semantic models by means of the general cultural geometric language in the dialectical synthesis of various forms, content, and conventional meanings. The artistic interpretations contribute to creation of the unique content. The constructivist approach includes the following methods: deconstructivism of conducting detailed analysis of the artifacts; constructivism of building new aesthetically expressive images. The result of this research lies in systematization of the essential attributes of visual culture for all forms and content. The novelty of consists in correspondence of the constructivist approach to the object and subject of the research, as well as in examination of the actual reality of the modern visual culture of digital technologies and new constructive methods of visualizing form and content in the images.
Culture and authority
Markova V.N. - Korean diaspora as the subject of ethnic policy of the Republic of Kazakhstan (1991 Ц 2020) pp. 64-71

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2021.2.34880

Abstract: This article examines Korean diaspora as the subject of ethnic policy of the Republic of Kazakhstan. The manifestations of the growing importance of national and ethnic affiliation as the identity important markers of the individuals and groups in the modern Kazakh society actualized the need for taking special measures and development of the doctrine of interaction of peoples within the multinational state. The research of the ethnic policy of the Republic of Kazakhstan through the prism of Korean diaspora allowed considering the crucial aspects and mechanisms of implementation of the state strategy of interethnic regulation. Comparison is conducted on the the legal and factual components of the work of the Assembly of People of Kazakhstan – the central body for ethnic affairs. The author reviews the humanitarian initiatives of the Association of Koreans of Kazakhstan as a structural part of the Assembly. The article analyzes not only domestic legal documents, but also the report of the United Nations Independent Expert on Minority Issues. The work is divided into the following logical parts: familiarization with the key principles and principal bodies of the ethnic policy of Kazakhstan; overview of the activity of ethno-cultural Korean societies; coverage of the topics of national language; examination of representation of the diaspora in different government branches and structures. This work is first to conduct a systematic historical research on the place and role of Koryo-saram in the ethnic policy of Kazakhstan. It is demonstrate that Korean diaspora, or Koryo-saram, is a vivid example of positive experience of the state strategy aimed at harmonization of interethnic relations. Using all necessary legal and infrastructural resources, Koreans manage to maintain and cultivate interest to their native culture, while being an organic part of Kazakhstan's democratic society.
Cultural heritage, tradition and innovation
Rodionova D., Gusev S.I., Tolkalova Y.I. - Actualization of cultural heritage by museum means for the visitors with hearing impairment pp. 72-81

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2021.2.35540

Abstract: The subject of this research is the actualization of cultural heritage by museum means. The object of this research is the adaptation of persons with hearing impairment, namely the experience of Russian museums. Museum plays a significant role in the processes of sociocultural adaptation, self-identification and social inclusion of the people with disabilities, possessing a unique set of criteria, ability to accumulate and transmit cultural potential. The active participation of museums in solution of sociocultural problems in many ways determines the vector of further development of museology, implementing modern cultural practices. The authors believe that working with the hearing-impaired visitors requires reconsideration of the traditional ways of presenting museum information and development of the new forms of interpretation of exhibition material. The conclusion is made that museum personnel should orient towards the individual peculiarities of each visitor, taking into account their capabilities in selecting the channel of museum communication, forms, methods and approaches. Museum personnel should plan their work jointly with the pedagogues, rehabilitation specialists, social workers, psychologists, and persons with disabilities directly. Each museum should be provided with the necessary conditions for working with children of each disability category. Namely this underlied the development of the concept of museum tour “We Can Hear You Through The Eyes” on the premises of Kuzbass State Museum of Local Lore.
Audiovisual culture and art
Bedenko V.N. - Parody film as a postmodernist deconstruction in cinematography pp. 82-100

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2021.2.34754

Abstract: Lately, the research of Parody film as a part of film discourse have reached its peak in the history and philosophy of science. The polycode essence of the concept of film discourse prompts changes and modifications in the interpretation of Parody film. Therefore, the subject of this analysis is Parody film. The goal of this research consists in examination of the peculiarities, meaning, and role of the concept of “parody film”, which is a creative work intended to ridicule the plot through satirical or ironic imitation. Research methodology is based on the method of analytical study of sources for clarification of the logic and content of the concepts of “parody”, “parody film”, and “film discourse”, as well for revealing the essence of parody film as a postmodernist deconstruction in cinematography. The article also employs the methods of comparative analysis and the concept of local cultures. The scientific novelty of this research consists in systematization of the existing knowledge on parody film in the light of film discourse, which being the phenomenon at the intersection of multiple disciplines is in the epicenter of scientific inquiries in linguistics, literary studies, sociolinguistics, philosophy of semiotics and film semiotics, critical discourse analysis, and theory of cinematography. The theoretical importance lies in characterization of the concepts of “parody”, “parody film”, “comedy”, “comedy film” in the context of modern knowledge of moviemaking and cinematography. The acquired results give a better perspective on the role of parody film in art and life of the society. The Interpreters fight for cinema, on the one hand adoring it as the art with unlimited capabilities, while on the other – neglecting the fact that it should need the unpretentious demands of the audience. The author claims that in a broad context, the parody film of the XXI century is not aimed at parodying a literary text. The filmmakers rather consider and use parody film as a means for drawing attention of various life circumstances.
Architecture and design
Pankratova A.V. - Flat design as a marker of hypermodernism pp. 101-111

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2021.2.34912

Abstract: The subject of this research is flat design as the basic sylistics and visual expression of the era of hypermodernism. Since modern design no longer corresponds to the characteristics of postmodernism, an assumption is made on the advent of the new period in design – hypermodernism. Hypermodernism is the term that implies the enhancement of design trends founded in the era of modernism: orientation towards modernity, design for manufacturability, split with the past, and absence of aesthetic hierarchy. Flat design is a style that visually expresses the aforementioned trends. The research material includes the final research projects in graphic design, interior design and industrial design, completed by the students of the department of Design of the Moscow Power Engineering Institute and the department of Graphic Design and Visual Communications of the Russian State University named after A. N. Kosygin. The article employs the method of semiotic analysis, which allows determining the key attributes used in flat design explicating the essential characteristics of flat design. The conclusion is made that flat design reflects the basic request of the era of hypermodernism – democratization of mentality, leveling of any differences up to the destruction of individuality. The idea of leveling of social differences, underlying the design of modernism, in hypermodernism reaches the idea of erasing any differences, any hierarchy, including the aesthetic. The presence of aesthetic hierarchy in design suggests the use of expressive means – index signs, iconic signs, and symbolic signs. The deconstruction of aesthetic hierarchy leads to the use of unexpressive signs – simulacrums. Most unexpressive sign is the fourth-stage simulacra – the sign, which relationship to any reality is reduced to zero. Flat design uses fourth-stage simulacra as the main form, thus meeting the demand of hypermodernism.
Music and music culture
Averina O.V. - Distance learning as a method of teaching piano class pp. 112-120

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2021.2.35200

Abstract: This article explores the specificity of teaching piano class in the university in the conditions of distance learning. The author suggests to consider distance learning as an active method of carrying out cognitive activity, i.e. a method of educating future piano performers, as well as from the perspective of modern organizational innovation. The article gradually covers certain historical prerequisites for the existence of distance learning method in music education in the middle of the XX century, as well as the conditions for its successful implementation. The author describes the formats of distance learning, Internet platforms that allow online and offline interaction of the participants of educational process. Based on the opinions of reputable educators-performers, as well leaning on the own experience of teaching classes remotely, the author determines the practical significance and feasibility of using the distance form of learning as a method of teaching future musicians. The conclusion is made that the all-round modernization, implementation and development of distance learning technology in the sphere of traditional education does not take into account the specificity of music and art universities. Despite all the flaws and imperfections of distance innovation, the author finds positive aspects, which would allow the pedagogues to implement distance learning to a certain extent for achieving certain educational objectives.
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