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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Man and Culture" > Contents of Issue є 01/2021
Contents of Issue є 01/2021
Culture and cultures
Kananerova E.N. - The problem of collectivization in the western regions of Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic within the Soviet historiography pp. 1-15


Abstract: The object of this research is the evolution of Soviet historical paradigm. The subject is the achievements of postwar Soviet historical science in the area of studying collectivization in the western regions of Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic (BSSR). The article presents the research results on collectivization in the western regions of Belarus. Special attention is given to the political factors of development of historical science, the most important of which are the Stalinist course, “Thaw”, Brezhnev's re-Stalinization of the 1970s – 1980s, as well as perestroika. The author of traces the evolution of themes and evaluations in the works of Soviet scholars who dealt with the postwar collectivization in the western regions and republics of the USSR under the influence of political factors. The conclusion is made that the agrarian historiography of collectivization in the western regions of BSSR is often subjective, and interprets the published archival documents and statistical records in the spirit of the official ideological attitudes. The topics related to violations during collectivization, “dekulakization” remained taboo until the period of perestroika, when the change of political conjuncture allowed the historians to examine the previously forbidden topics. Namely this instigated the destruction of the Soviet historical paradigm. The author established that there is a discrepancy between the published official statistics and the conclusions on the nature of collectivization along with “dekulakization” in the western regions of BSSR. The novelty of this work is defined by fact that the analysis of Soviet historical studies is based on the modern historical paradigm and the concept of the scientific school of V. P. Danilov that developed in the post-Soviet historical science in terms of studying collectivization and “dekulakization” of the 1930s.
Avdeyeva V.V. - Psychological approach towards studying the naive art: practice of art brut pp. 16-25


Abstract: The subject of this research is the peculiarities of the psychological approaches of European experts of the late XIX – early XX centuries (psychiatrists of the so-called “historical psychiatry”), art historians and painters of the XX century, specializing in collection of the works of mentally ill people (or art brut). The historical-comparative method is applied for determination of the specifics of the naive art of Western Europe in the XIX – XX centuries and its comparison with other areas of amateur art of this period. The psychological approach is essential for studying the works of mentally ill people (or art brut) and its key peculiarities. The comparative method allows analyzing the modern forms of art brut and naive art. The novelty consists in outlining the principal psychological approaches of foreign experts with the art brut, the interpretation of which contributes to decoding of all amateur art. Evolution of views stems from determination of similarities between genius and mental disorders, tracing patterns in creative process of the patients, assessment of the ability of a person with mental disorder to creative thinking and invent the object of art prior to learning the artistic beginning. In this regard, the psychological approach revealed the key trends in studying amateur art: from the perspective of Marseille Rege (with his “embryonic” view) to the point of view of Morgenthaller (with his realization of creativity of the patients), and artistic views of Prinzhorn and Dubuffet, who focus on the art criteria: vision of form, color, composition and other formal attributes of an artwork. Thus, the interpretation of art brut becomes a certain “bridge” for understanding the sphere of the naive art.
Music and music culture
Serov I.E. - УMarinaФ by Boris Tishchenko in the context of the revival of Russian symphonic style of the late XX century pp. 26-35


Abstract: The subject of this research is Marina Symphony No.2 by the prominent Russian composer of the late XX century Boris Ivanovich Tishchenko. It was completed in 1964, and for a long time remained unreleased. Special attention is given to the symphonic dramaturgy of the piece, interrelation between the music and the poetic text, as well as modernization of the language of composing. Specific trait of Tishchenko's symphonic style — the aspiration and ability to expose the surrounding conflicts and contradictions – is amplified in the symphony. Tishchenko masterfully reconstructs any desirable emotional and psychological atmosphere, which manifests in the variety of techniques and technical solutions. Symphony No.2 by Boris Tishchenko is a remarkable phenomenon in the national music, as well as an important step towards formation of the composer's unique symphonic style. In “Marina”, Tishchenko addresses the pivotal question of not only his creative path, but perhaps of the entire musical art of the XX century: the level of adherence of the author's imagination to the musical form. His imagination is irrepressible; the language is highly modern; the form is classically clear and closely related to the good Russian and Soviet symphonic style. The novelty of this research consists in consideration of the remarkable symphonic piece of Boris Tishchenko from the present-day perspective and in the context of revival of the entire national symphonic style of the 1960s.
Theoretical culturology and the theory of culture
Ilivitskaya L.G. - Diagnostic model of the city: a chronotopic approach pp. 36-46


Abstract: The object of this research is the city viewed as a multilayered semantic phenomenon. The needs of transdisciplinary nature determine the vector of its analysis in light of the possibility of application of diagnostic approach, which incorporates the theoretical and practical aspects, cognitive and transformative sides. The goal consists in the development of diagnostic model of the city as a cultural phenomenon. The position is defended on the limitation of classical diagnostic search applicable to the so-called city. The prospects of its research correlate with the nonclassical interpretation of diagnostics, which views it as methodology of cognition. The basic method of this research is modelling. The development of diagnostic model of the city is founded on M. M. Bakhtin’s concept of chronotope. Namely chronotope is determines as the basic parameter underlying its construct. Incorporating the spatiotemporal parameters of the city and their cultural meanings, it allows recording the temporal-topos configurations in city motion, which reflect various qualitative states of its existence, set by the past, present and future. The author offers a ternary model of the city, consisting of historical-cultural, eventful, and innovative chronotopes. The formulated conclusions indicate that the proposed chronotopes can be viewed separately or following the principle of complementarity, which allows assessing the city from the perspective effective arrangement of urban space, as well as the presence of problematic fields therein.
Arts and crafts
Safronova E.M. - Moscow period of creativity of the ceramist P. K. Vaulin (1890-1903) pp. 47-57


Abstract: The subject of this research is the stylistic peculiarities and means of artistic expression of the architectural majolica by Peter Kuzmich Vaulin. The object of this research is the architectural-artistic ceramics of P. K. Vaulin on the facades of Moscow buildings at the turn of the XIX – XX centuries as cultural heritage site. Detailed analysis is conducted on the Moscow period of P. K. Vaulin. The author determines the circle of artists who worked with the ceramist, analyzes the phenomenon of the Abramtsevo art club and its impact upon the professional becoming of P. K. Vaulin. Special attention is given to the workshop in Abramtsevo as a true center of art and a source for the development of the national romantic trend in decorative and applied art, as well as to the architectural landmarks of Moscow with majolica decor designed by P. K. Vaulin. The theoretical and methodological framework is comprised of the scientific works on the theory and history of art, aesthetics, psychology of art and philosophy. The compositional-artistic analysis, comparative-descriptive method, and imagery-stylistic analysis allowed studying the means of artistic expression of architectural ceramics, the compositional interaction of materials and space, as well as style and formative peculiarities of ceramics. The conclusion is made that direct practical participation of professional artists in the Russian decorative and applied art in the late XIX century considerably impacted the development of applied art, and drew attention of the world community, emphasizing its value within the system of visual art. The analysis of architectural compositions indicates that P. K. Vaulin was a co-author of the ceramic works created by the artists of the Abramtsevo (Mamontov’s) art club. The scientific novelty consists in comprehensive examination of the works of Moscow Period of P. K. Vaulin in the area of facade ceramics, as well as the imagery-stylistic and artistic analysis of the compositions of the master.
Culturology and cultural studies
Mokhtari S. - The role of the institution of temporary marriage in Iranian culture pp. 58-72


Abstract: In the history of Iran, the institution of temporary marriage is old-established. However, in different historical periods this institution had different forms and functions. Although temporary marriage did not receive public recognition among the Iranian people, this institution continues to exist in the Iranian society. The author attempts to determine the reasons for its perpetuation in the Iranian culture. Analysis is conducted on the dynamics of transformations of the institution of temporary marriage in the Iranian culture in different historical periods. The conclusions are acquired using the method of comparative-historical analysis of historical manuscripts and written testimonies. The author classifies and describes the three historical periods “Ancient Iran”, “The Initial Period of Islam prior to the Islamic Republic”, and “The Islamic Republic”. The results demonstrate that the institution of temporary marriage, which emerged on the basis of patriarchal culture of Iranian society, legitimately met individual needs, such as sexual desire, childbearing, livelihood; and social needs, such as inheritance, strengthening of social ties. In each historical period, this institution also performed special cultural functions revealed in the course of this research. There is yet no comprehensive and documented historical research, which would compare all historical periods in a single work.
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