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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Man and Culture" > Contents of Issue є 06/2020
Contents of Issue є 06/2020
Culturology and cultural studies
Balakireva T.A., Koloskov A.N. - Digital transformations in educational process: challenge of time pp. 1-9

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2020.6.34280

Abstract: This article is dedicated to examination of transformations in educational process during pandemic. Relevance of the selected topic is substantiated by the current cultural realities: contagion of coronavirus infection, quarantine, imposed restrictions, and thus, the need for restructuring communication channels in sociocultural reality, namely with regards to educational space. The goal consists in the analysis of new forms of communication, organizational education technologies that appeared in media space under the indicated circumstances. Characteristics is given to distance learning and communications means for its implementation. The author describes synchronous, asynchronous, and mixed learning techniques, as well as their substantive aspects. Such type of distance learning as online courses is being discussed. Particular attention is turned to the peculiarities of final academic assessment in the context of quarantine or self-isolation. In the conditions caused by pandemic, there emerges a need for more active usage of media space for arranging social, economic, and educational processes. The sphere of education, which is also related to health care of young generation, undergoes transformation taking into account the relevant sociocultural realities caused by pandemic. Such previously extracurricular forms of learning as synchronous, asynchronous, mixed, and online courses enjoy popularity, and even become essential. Final academic assessment in the conditions of imposed restrictions and distance learning acquires twofold meanings: on the one hand, there is a risk for distortion of perception of information in the course of graduate paper presentation, while on the other hand it forms a more comfortable psychological environment for the student due to being in a familiar environment. The newly established situation for culture and education in particular is the prime subject for researchers.  
Culture and cultures
Andreeva E.V., Yakovleva K.V. - Semiotic approach towards formation of tourism discourse in the Sakha Republic (Yakutia) pp. 10-21

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2020.6.34304

Abstract: The subject of this research is the analysis of the process of formation of tourism discourse of the Sakha Republic (Yakutia). The article examines semiotic aspects of this process, world experience of formation of tourism discourse; determines its relevant development trends that allow increasing the competitiveness of tourist destination; and assesses tourism discourse potential of the Sakha Republic (Yakutia). Attention is focused on studying the semiotic potential of such element of tourism discourse as website. The authors explore the content of websites of municipalities (districts) of the Sakha Republic (Yakutia); as well as based on semiotic analysis determines the semantic core, syntactic peculiarities, and pragmatic potential of the website of municipality (district). Recommendations are made on the development of tourism discourse of the Sakha Republic (Yakutia). The following conclusions are formulated:- Currently, the effective development trends in tourism discourse consists in attraction of tourists to collaboration and engagement in the process of discourse formation; strengthening of pragmatic component of the discourse, search and usage of different means of creolization;- There is contradiction between the status of the Sakha Republic (Yakutia) as an attractive tourist attraction of the Far East and the image of a tourist destination, the formation of which is constrained by undeveloped tourism discourse;- The increase of tourism attractiveness of the Sakha Republic (Yakutia) is possible in the context of formation of tourism discourse;- It is necessary to determine the image core and key image elements that form the image of tourist destination for a potential tourist;- In creation of discourse, it is necessary to form a situation of collaboration between the creators of tourist product and the clients (tourists, travelers), change the concept of visual content towards increasing image induction and implementation of interaction in form of digital and virtual mini-tours and guides;- It is also essential to translate involvement of the region in world heritage via utilizing the potential of folk art, masterpiece of folk and intangible heritage of humanity – the epic art Olonkho.
Sugrobova Y.Y., Karpova I.D., Dorofei Y.O. - The parameters of anthropological crisis and modern global generation pp. 22-34

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2020.6.34308

Abstract: This article analyzes the main factors of anthropological crisis, its attributes, impact upon the worldview, psychological, and cultural characteristics of the modern global network generation of Millennials and Centennials. An overview is given to the sources, in which the authors raise the problems of personal crisis, its causes, as well as the prospects for further development of humanity. Analysis is conducted on key traits in communication of collective society, peculiarities of behavioral communication strategy in the conditions of Informatization of the society. The article provides the results of modern research of R. Jenkins and the agency PBN H+K jointly with Magram MR, as well as “Tomsk initiative” project on the representatives of Millennials – “generation Y” and Centennials – “generation Z”; comparative characteristics of their value orientations and life strategies is given. The current formation and development of the new cultural space with the specific features of global, universal, technologized, virtual nature is demonstrated. The role of Net-technologies is revealed; being the key factor of the transformation of modern space, change the forms of sociocultural interaction, production techniques, transformation and conveyance of information, require elaboration of the special forms of spiritual and practical mastering of the reality and self-reflection of the individuals. An assumption is made that due to the technologies of globalization and ideology of postmodernism, takes place the uniformity of social and political structures, destruction of the forms of human identification – cultural, historical and spiritual, as well as destruction of the worldview foundations of personal becoming. Deidentification of a person becomes the key reason of the anthropological crisis.
Culture and science
Pupysheva N.V., Boronoev V.V. - Pulse diagnosis in the Tibetan medical tradition: the experience of objectification of basic principles of pulse diagnosis using a pulse diagnostic device pp. 35-55

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2020.6.34260

Abstract: This article describes the experience of objectification of basic characteristics of pulse waves in pulse diagnosis based on Tibetan medical tradition. A competent therapist – expert in Tibetan pulse diagnosis can assess functionality of the body (twelve internal organs and three psychophysiological systems) by feeling the pulse in six points of palpation located on the radial arteries of both wrists of the patient. The goal of this research consists in “teaching” pulse diagnostic device to recognize the diagnostically relevant characteristics of pulse waves. The article represents an attempt of objectification of the fundamentals of pulse diagnosis. Although pulse diagnosis has always been a subjective art of the talented therapist, its basic knowledge can become part of objective science as it is based on the real physical phenomena. The author describes the method of measuring pulse rate using a pulse diagnostic device in the conditions that create certain predictable responses of the body to an exogenous irritant, which in this case contributes to calming the rlung (wind) system. The experiment involved a group of volunteers. The conclusion is made that similar experiments provide material for the analysis of pulse waves acquired under specifically arranged conditions, which promotes the development of software fort the pulse diagnostic device, and proves that the objectification of fundamentals of pulse diagnosis in the Tibetan medicine is possible, although on a limited basis. The novelty is defined by the fact that the research based on the material of Tibetan medical tradition have not been previously conducted. The work consists of the three parts: first part is an extensive introduction that provides records on Buddhist medicine and pulse diagnosis, which help to understand the essence of the experiments; second part is dedicated to the experimental measurements of pulse rate using pulse diagnostic device; and third part represents the conclusions drawn from the conducted experiments.
Culture and cultures
Atanesyan G., Hakobyan G. - The problems of preservation of ethnic identity of the Belarusian diaspora in Soviet and post-Soviet Armenia pp. 56-68

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2020.6.34379

Abstract: The object of this research is the problems of preservation of ethnic identity of the Belarusian diaspora in Armenia during Soviet and post-Soviet period. Interethnic families comprise the current Belarusian community in Armenia. These scattered ethnic groups are the soft target for assimilation processes in the predominantly conservative and monoethnic regions of Armenia. The article presents a brief overview on the history of Belarusian diaspora of Yerevan and Belarusian ethnic groups in the Armenian regions since its formation until the present. Certain backbone characteristics of the concept of diaspora are described. The novelty consists in the division of Belarusian diaspora of Armenia into Belarusian diaspora of Yerevan and ethnic groups of the regions of the Republic of Armenia. A comparative analysis of these fundamentally different communities allowed better understanding the problems that threaten the existence of Belarusian diaspora in Armenia. Analysis is conducted on the basic factors of ethnic identity of the Belarusian diaspora in Armenia. The article reviews the factors that contribute to assimilation and ethnic transformation of Belarusian ethnic groups of the Republic of Armenia and the diaspora of Yerevan. In Yerevan, Belarusian ethnic identifiers are being replaced by the Russians, while in rural areas of Armenia even Russian indicators are being dislodged by the local ethnic components, which can result in fatal assimilation.
Theory and methodology of communication
Bychkova O.A., Nikitina A.V. - Images of game and gamer in the space of literature and computer games pp. 69-80

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2020.6.34481

Abstract: The subject of this research is the images of game and gamers. In the space of literary work, they are arrayed in metaphorical and often demonic raiment, receiving moral-ethical interpretation in one or another way. The problem of game and gamer in criticism was regarded by Y. Mann (“On the Concept of Game as a Literary Image”), V. V. Vinogradov (“Style of the Queen of Spades”), E. Dobin (“Ace and Queen”, A. Pushkin’s “The Queen of Spades”), R. Caillois (“Games and People”), British writer and researcher of online games R, Bartle, American scientist Nick Yee, and many others. However, juxtaposition of literature sources on the topic to the research in the field of computer games is conducted for the first time. The scientific novelty consists in the comprehensive examination of the psychological game of the gamer based on the material of Russian literature (A. S. Pushkin “The Queen of Spades”, V. V. Nabokov The Luzhin Defense”) , as well as the modern computer games practice, in which psychological type of the gamer found its realization and development in accordance with genre diversity. Even the Russian classical literature depict game as an autonomous space that encompasses the gamer, and often has devastating effect on their personality. The author also observes an important characterological trait of the gamer: the conceptual, “literal” perception of the world, which is based on the reception of visual images of the world against verbal. Therefore, the Russian literature alongside the research practice of modern videogames from different angles approach examination of the images of “game and gamer”, cognize the factors and consequences of the problems that emerge in this object field, as well as seek for their solution. The data acquired in the course of the conducted comparative analysis is mutually enriching.
Culturology and cultural studies
Severina E.M. - Cultural concept in cognitive dimension pp. 81-93

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2020.6.34161

Abstract: This article reviews the methodological principles of studying cultural concepts in the context of cognitive approach, possibilities for conducting reconstruction of certain fragments of linguistic worldview based on the material of digital text corpora. Leaning on the cognitive approach towards concept as a unit of structured and unstructured knowledge that forms cognition of a separate individual and culture as a whole, results of conceptual research of the texts of philosophers who view culture as symbolic creativity of a person associated with freedom (concepts of I. Kant, E. Cassirer, N. A. Berdyaev), the authors conducted reconstruction of certain fragments of the linguistic worldview and ordinary consciousness, correlated with the concept of “culture” in digital text corpora in the Russian and Anglo-Saxon cultures. Examination of the contexts of usage of verbal representations of the concept of “culture” in the digital text corpora of Russian language and different varieties of English language demonstrates that the crucial ideological values of Anglo-Saxon linguistic worldview are the following representations: culture is of instrumental nature; civilization is considered as the path development of humanity; freedom is viewed as an intrinsic right to freedom that should be protected, i.e. initial and inherent to a human. In the Russian-language texts, culture implies the value-based attitude towards world, mostly associated with the national culture; civilization is viewed in the context of a value-based attitude towards world, but as the path of development of humanity as a whole; freedom has value-based individual, personalistic connotation, supposed to be full, absolute, which is often understood as the liberty of action and choice. It is underlines that utilization of corpus methods allows reconstructing the techniques of formation of worldview, choice of value priorities, mechanisms of perception of surrounding reality in a specific culture from contexts of practical usage of the verbal manifestations of cultural concepts.
Ethnology and cultural anthropology
Markova V.N. - Ethnic and diasporic self-consciousness of the Korean diaspora of modern Kazakhstan through the prism of sociocultural processes pp. 94-104

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2020.6.34715

Abstract: This article focuses on the phenomenon of Korean diaspora in Kazakhstan – a unique phenomenon in the diaspora studies. Having a racial-anthropological homogeneity with the inhabitants of Korean Peninsula, the Koreans of Kazakhstan have lost multiple ethnic traits: native language, anthroponymy, blood relationships on their historical homeland. Despite this fact, the representatives of Korean ethnos identify themselves as part of the ancient Korean culture, honor their native traditions, and state their nationality as “Korean” in the population census. An important role in conveyance of culture and spiritual values of the diaspora is played by public organizations. The Assembly of the People of Kazakhstan, Association of the Koreans of Kazakhstan, State Republican Academic Korean Theater of Musical Comedy, and Korean House are the anchors that support the diaspora and contribute to preservation of historical belonging and self-consciousness. Methodological framework is comprised of historiographical analysis of the works of Korean studies scholars dedicated to the history of Korean diaspora in Central Asia, monitoring of the legislative framework of Kazakhstan and news agenda, interviews of individual representatives of the diaspora. The conducted research proves that diasporality is a more vital form of preservation of ethnocultural identity than the ethnic attribution by linguistic or anthropological principle. Living far from their historical homeland for centuries, the representatives of Koryo-Saram continue identifying themselves as Koreans. They have gone through the key stages of assimilation, integrated into the system of social relations, and consider themselves Kazakhs of Korean descent. As long as the indicated ethnocultural group acknowledges its uniqueness and difference from other ethnic groups of Kazakhstan, the diasporic self-consciousness, Korean diaspora and its institutions would exists.
Cultural heritage, tradition and innovation
Mestnikova A.E. - Traditional culture as the key marker of ethnic identity of the Circumpolar peoples (on the example of Anabar National (Dolgan-Evenki) Ulus of the Sakha Republic (Yakutia) pp. 105-115

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2020.6.34739

Abstract: The subject of this research is the content and form of preservation and conveyance of traditional culture as the key marker of ethnic identity of the Circumpolar peoples. The article provides the results of field research conducted in 2020 in the Anabar National (Dolgan-Evenki) Ulus of the Sakha Republic (Yakutia), particularly of the rural locality Yuryung-Khaya, which is the only settlement in Yakutia populated mostly by Dolgans. Cultural landscape of this region, which includes ethnic and linguistic cultures of Dolgans, Evenks, Evens, Nganasans, Enets, and Nenets is characterized by mutual influence of longtime ethnocultural contacts and their reflection in the cultural traditions. Analysis of the results of sociological survey demonstrates that the majority of respondents (60.2%) believe that the choice of nationality is determined by culture and traditions, native language (26.9%), history and territory (10.4%). The results of quantitative and qualitative sociological research (questionnaire, unstructured interview, psycholinguistic experiments), as well as the analysis of modern scientific studies, allow concluding on the leading positions of culture and traditions as the fundamental identifiers of ethnicity, and determinant role of traditional economic and cultural types of activity in the process of ethnic self-identification of the indigenous peoples.
Culture and cultures
Skalka E.V. - How to predict color? pp. 116-123

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2020.6.33036

Abstract: The subject of this research is the forecast or prediction of color. The Russian science does not feature work dedicated to such aspect; however, foreign sources approached prediction of color from various perspectives, most often viewing the color trends as an inseparable part of fashion. The goal of this work consists in determination of the place and time of conception of the color forecasts, historical analysis of evolution of this phenomenon, and assumptions on further development of this direction. Territorially, the epicenters of development of color forecasts are determined in Europe (France and England), in America (the United States), in Asia (Japan). The author describes the peculiarities of color predictions in each country – at certain stages one or another county was ahead or behind; whit the advent of the Internet, everything moves to online format and becomes more dynamic. The article follows the forecast of color since its emergence, highlighting all stages of its development and establishment. The chronological framework of its development stages stretches from the early XVIII century until modernity. From the earliest to more recent, these stages include the color cards, mediators and agents (between factories, textile workers and customers, and stores), trade fairs and expositions, online services and websites. It is determined that with the course of time, the methods and instruments for predicting color were being accumulated and used together; the new colors were added, while the already existing did not lose their relevance. Despite the development of technologies, a final word in forecasting color trends belongs to a human, based on experience and intuition.
Karagodin A.V., Petrova M.M. - The Mikhailov spouses Ц county physicians and philanthropists in the Southern Coast of Crimea: biography in the context of epoch pp. 124-140

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2020.6.34666

Abstract: The subject of this research is the history of life, professional and social activity of the Mikhailov spouses – county physicians and philanthropists in the Southern Coast of Crimea throughout several decades of the first half of the XX century. The circumstances of this history, reconstructed in historiography for the first time based on comprehensive examination of the newly introduced into the scientific discourse sources (archives, materials from the museum funds, periodicals, sources of personal origin),  are placed into the context of large-scale sociocultural shifts that took place in the region and nationwide at the turn of the XIX – XX centuries and the first half of the XX century. The scientific novelty consists in reconstruction of the important page in the history of development of county medicine and philanthropy in the Southern Coast of Crimea in the early XX century. Due to the fact that in accordance with the modern requirements of historiographical direction of “ego-history”, the dynamics of personal fate of the heroes is viewed against the background of social correlations, The new data is acquired on the history of development of the Southern Coast of Crimea in the early XX century by the representatives of different strata of the Russian society – nobility, merchantry, and intelligentsia, as well as on establishment of the special sociocultural environment in the region.
Cultural heritage, tradition and innovation
Illarionov V.V., Maksimova A.A. - Forgotten rituals of white shamans pp. 141-149

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2020.6.34222

Abstract: The subject of this research is the repertoire of the white shaman I. A. Suzdalov-Sapalay. The object of this research is his shamanic rituals. Chronologically, the study covers the first half of the XX century. Methodological framework is comprised of the empirical method of description; general logical method of analysis by chronological principle; synthesis of the rites as a part of Aiy rituals. The method of synthesis, analysis and description of shamanic rites reveal certain pages of the ancient religious beliefs of the ancestors of Sakha people. The article examines the repertoire of shaman Sapalay – Ivan Andreevich Suzdalov, born in Abyysky District of the Sakha Republic (Yakutia). The authors introduce into the scientific discourse the unique materials on Yakut shamanism. A detailed description is given to the rituals of the last Aiy shaman (white shaman) I. A. Suzdalov-Sapalay, docymented by the folklorists-collectors. The heritage of Ivan Andreevich Suzdalov-Sapalay reveals new nuances of the forgotten early religious beliefs of the Yakut people. His description of the rites gives representation on the worldview, faith, afterlife, three souls of human being, and rituals of the Yakut people.
Alekseev-Apraksin A.M. - Generation dialogue: fire and ice of cultural transformations pp. 150-162

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2020.6.34235

Abstract: This article is dedicated to determination of the role of “generation dialogue” in development of the world culture. The author substantiates the ontological status of this phenomenon, which exists in the Oriental and Western, ancient and modern cultural space. It is demonstrated that the concept of “generation dialogue” is broader than the concept of “cultural universals”, introduced by social and cultural anthropologists in the XX century, since it not only incorporates not only fundamental comparability of ethnic cultures and possibility of comparative analysis, but also allows working with any modern forms of self-organization and determining the principal cause of the existence of culture. The main goal of this research consists in the analysis of cultural inheritance and transmission of knowledge. The key regimes of cultural development indicate two foundations of cultural dynamics dichotomous by means of implementation: 1) one ensures acquisition and arrangement of the accumulated knowledge, including classification and improvement of users interface, being realized in acceptance and preservation of all kind, beautiful and valuable left by the predecessors; 2) the second is aimed at destruction of the traditions, alienation from the native, including neglect, borrowings, and creative synthesis of the miscellaneous. The latter contributes to revitalization of culture. Such form of intercultural dialogue is illustrated by the modern Benedict Abbey of Saint Willibrord in Doetinchem, which is known for Zen meditation practices by the Catholic monks and parishioners. The general conclusion is made that having the ontological status, the generation dialogue contributes to the development of culture in space and time. Dichotomous regimes of realization of this dialogue employ the incompatible means of revival of cultural memory. The article demonstrates that the determined mechanism of generation dialogue are universal and archetypical, although complicate the reality in different ways. Their balanced coexistence is essential for the full-fledged cultural development in the present time and foreseeable future.
Culture of the mundane
Iakovleva E. - Specificity of gastronomic code of Salvador Dali pp. 163-174

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2020.6.30408

Abstract: The object of this research is the analysis of specificity of gustatory preference of Salvador Dali that allows reconstructing gastronomic code of the genius. The results of analysis demonstrate that Dalian gastronomic code is based on the principles of legitimacy, hierarchy and mysticism. Legitimacy is expressed in the precision of the shapes of ingredients and their compatibility, carefully following the recipe, prevalence of the dishes of Catalonian cuisine. Hierarchy of gastronomic practices in life of the genius was associated with his dietary regime and its quality, as well as knowledge of gastronomic preferences. The process of saturation and appearance of delicacies, erotic component of food underlines the mystical component of gastronomic culture of the genius. Overall, the gastronomic code of Salvador Dali demonstrates Cosmo-Psycho-Logos of the artist, structuring at the intersection of emotional and rational, material and spiritual components of gastronomic culture. The indicated problematic is viewed on the basis of culturological analysis of diary notes and recipe book of Salvador Dali, which help to determine the peculiarities of his gastronomic taste and reconstruct his gastronomic code. This article is first to reconstruct the gastronomic code of Salvador Dali and his key elements (legitimacy, hierarchy, and mysticism). The acquired results can be used in further research dedicated to studying personality and works of Salvador Dali, as well as in analysis of individual gastronomic codes that allow bringing more details into psychological characteristics of personality.
Audiovisual culture and art
Golovanova E.A. - Creation of musical content based on the plotline of music videos pp. 175-183

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2020.6.30990

Abstract: This article examines the visual means of modern music videos and their impact on perception of the audience. The author is first to study the peculiarities of creation of visual imagery along with artistic means of music videos and their impact on the viewership. The conception, development stages, and specifics of the visual imagery of music videos on TV – from the “Little Blue Light” and musical films to modern music videos – are considered. Each of the is based on the balance between musical content of the composition, based on the compositional differences of the plot, and viewership perception, arousing the feeling of immersion into the image, connectedness to the events on TV, and affection with  the heroes. The scientific novelty consists in the attempt to correlate verbal content of the music video with its visual imagery. The conclusion is made that the audience perception in a certain way depends on the peculiarities of visual imagery of music videos, which feature contrapuntal aesthetics combined with the main idea of music video and differences within the framework of performer’s representation of the composition. The common aspect for creation of all music videos is the depiction of motion, which again underlines its inextricable connection of music video and cinematography, which is based on creation of a certain image by the actor.
Music and music culture
Zakharov Y. - Witold Lutosławski: artistic portrait on the background of world wars pp. 184-199

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2020.6.29242

Abstract: This article examines the life and artistic journey of the Polish composer Witold Lutosławski over the period from 1913 to 1945. Special attention is given to the fate of his father Józef who along with his brother were executed by a firing squad in September 1918, as well as to the fate of the omposer himself and his brother Henryk during the World War II. In the second part of the article, the subject of research becomes the peculiarities of musical language of W. Lutoslawski, as well as his views upon the sound structure and dramaturgical construct of the compositions. The presence of two substantive aspects in Lutoslawski’s music is proven: 1) gradual transformation of harmonious vertical due to progressive changes or addition of sounds (in combination with intonation transformations); 2) dramaturgy of sections and dramaturgy of layers. The author offers a new perspective on the works of Witold Lutosławski as the continuation G. Mahler in the area of the general concept of symphonic style, as well as in the area of intonation plot. At attempt is made to explain the peculiarity of perception of Lutosławski’s music by Russian audience in the context of comparison of the Russian and Polish mentality.
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