- 1 2020 - - - ISSN: 2409-8744 - NotaBene

 

 

Man and Culture
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Man and Culture" > Contents of Issue 01/2020
Contents of Issue 01/2020
Memory studies
Linchenko A.A. - Traumas of cultural memory in migration and post-migration society pp. 1-16

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2020.1.31889

Abstract: The subject of this research is the peculiarities of structuring and reproduction of cultural traumas in the environment of migration communities. Based on the national and foreign studies of migration sphere of the modern German society, as well as a series of empirical research carried out the author in two federal lands of the Federative Republic of Germany, analysis is conducted on the specificity of structuring and reproduction of traumas of cultural memories among the refugees and forcefully displaced persons, ethnic and work migrants. The author compares the peculiarities of representation of cultural traumatic experience in migration and post-migration society. The use of systemic approach allowed determining the structure and constitutive relations between the key components of the process of reproduction and structuring of cultural traumas in migration environment. The structuring and reproduction of cultural traumas in migration environment depend on the position of receiving society and duration of stay of a migrant therein, specificity of the type of migration, intensity of contacts with the country of origin, as well as peculiarities of cultural memory of the country of origin. The novelty of this study consist not only in comparative analysis of the specificities of perception of the cultural traumatic experience within the environment of forcefully displaced persons, ethnic and work migrants of the modern Germany, but also juxtaposition of migration and post-migration society in the context of the questions of structuring and reproduction of cultural traumas. It is determines that the “post-migration society” contributes to transformation of the process of structuring of cultural traumas towards further fragmentation of the cultural traumatic experience, as well as emergence and dissemination of cultural traumas related to the most tragic pages in the history of humanity overall.
Culture and cultures
Kuzovenkova Y.A. - To whom it is revealed? or distrust in a global village pp. 17-25

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2020.1.30975

Abstract: This article examines the realities of modern culture, which under the influence of Internet marks the emergence of new communicative situation, well described by the term “a global village”. For such subculture as graffiti, it reflected in the fact that the information on it became accessible for anyone interested. However, in the course of studying graffiti community, the author established that access to information does not imply having accurate knowledge. This led to a question on the legitimate knowledge base in this subculture. The research is carried out on the materials of graffiti stage of Samara. The applied approaches are based on the media concept of Marshall McLuhan and theory of collective and individual memory of Maurice Halbwachs. The conclusion is made that the knowledge on graffiti subculture (both, its history and practical concept) is directly related to the experience in this sphere. In order to understand the meanings kept by collective memory, it is necessary to possess individual memory associated with this practice. Therefore, the accuracy of knowledge on graffiti subculture is defined not by the source of knowledge, but rather the experience of creating graffiti works.
Denisova Z.M. - Intonation and genre montage in the compositions of Alfred Schnittke pp. 26-34

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2020.1.31469

Abstract: The subject of this research is the works of the prominent national composer Alfred Schnittke. The analysis of musical compositions demonstrated that one of the dominant technique of their thematic development consists in the intonation and genre montage, and dramaturgy is structured as a peculiar intertwinement of imagery-thematic lines, each of which is formed as an assemblage of themes referred to the same genre. The main principle for this research served the principle of historicism as one of the fundamental within national musicology, which views an artistic phenomenon in unity of transformation of traditions and modern trends. The scientific novelty consists in determination of the leading principle of musical compositions of A. Schnittke – the principle of “generalization through the genre”, presented as an intonation and genre montage. In conclusions formulated in the article, the author summarizes and systematizes the results of study: combining different genres in a single sound space, the composer interprets them as so-called intonation-semantic signs formed in the process of prolonged historical-cultural development, generating valid content, and at the same time, in its intertwinement, creating an individual artistic view of the world.
Azarova V.V. - The undying archaic elements in dramatic oratorio by Arthur Honegger Joan of Arc at the Stake pp. 35-61

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2020.1.31950

Abstract: The subject of this research is the integration of the elements of old genres in to a composition of Arthur Honegger’s dramatic oratorio. Particular attention is paid to formation of the system of interrelated intonation-dramaturgical spheres and vocal-symphonic development of recurring themes, motifs and sound symbols. The author examines the interaction of verbal and vocal-symphonic elements of sound fabric. The goal consists in identification of the traits of old genres and other archaic elements within the synthetic form of musical/dramatic theatre, as well as determination of the dominant aspect of musical meaning therein. Research methodology is based on the musical-hermeneutic reconstruction of the process of composing, detection of the fundamental principles of musical dramaturgy along with functions of cited by the composer Latin texts in the synthetic form of dramatic oratorio. The main method for this work became the musical-theoretical analysis of polyphonic vocal-symphonic musical fabric, and analysis of the verbal texts of voice part in the French and Latin languages, in de visu score. This article is first to interpret integration of the genre codes of medieval mystery play and citations from liturgical texts of the previous eras, including the Holy Scripture, into the compositions of dramatic oratorio of Arthur Honegger as the means for creating temporal multidimensionality of the synthetic form of French musical/dramaturgical theatre of the XX century within the context of Christian tradition. Honegger has overcome the linearity of narration through integration into the composition of the traits of previous eras. The citation of liturgical texts, including Holy Scripture, lead to expansion of the semantic space of literary text of the dramatic oratorio. This established the idea of synthesis of time and eternity characteristic to Christianity.
nikiforova s.v., Ivanova M.A. - Museum as the third place in cultural space of a rural area pp. 62-72

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2020.1.32074

Abstract: This article explores the problem of reconstruction and diversification of the activity of regional museums on the periphery. Attention is focused on underestimation (absence of demand) of potential of a museum in cultural space of a rural area. Reconstruction of the cultural space should be realized in accordance with the cluster principle: it allows reconstructing the functions of currently operating museums in an affordable way; optimally harness their potential; shift accents of their role for the society. Mainstreaming the values of regional ethnic culture contributes to the establishment of a positive cultural identity of the local dwellers. The author applies a complex interdisciplinary approach towards studying the problems of designing cultural space and forms of organizing leisure activities. Method of mosaic modeling is used in development of the project of museum as a third place. It is proven that cluster principle for organization of cultural and educational establishments, service sector; collaboration of their personnel; extensive implementation of participatory practices actualize the potential of cultural institutions of the rural area. Modern sociocultural practices as a platform of third place actively promote libraries (El Lissitzky and others) and cafés (Ray Oldenburg and others); the authors propose a museum complex – association of thee museums of the rural area. The article formulates a theoretical substantiation for broadening museum functions as an educational platform, place for relocation, personal development, and self-fulfillment. A reorganized creative cluster may contribute to the establishment of a positive cultural identity of the local dwellers, as well as make the cultural space more productive and efficient.
Zakharova E.E. - Citys cultural environment as a part of public space pp. 73-80

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2020.1.32171

Abstract: At the current stage of social development, human life becomes increasingly interlinked with the cities. Cities play a significant role in history, especially in the history of culture, Cities and culture are inseparable concepts, having such close relation that comprise an entire object of cognition. Namely these factors bestow individuality and adaptiveness upon urban environment. Space opens more opportunities for communication, exchange of experience and running social campaigns. Therefore, the conditions for existence of a new cultural environment are associated not only with changes in the created design solutions and/or aesthetic trends. Based on the method of comparative analysis, the author examines the concept of “cultural environment of a city” and its impact upon arrangement of public space. The novelty of this study consists in the thesis that the efficiency of organization of the urban cultural environment affects development potential of the cities in their social and economic unity, with focus on the degree of population content with the quality of life. Cultural environment also impacts consumer culture and interests of the community, as well as contribute to the development of urban space.
Culture and civilization
Gribov R.V. - Cultural inversion of the concept social responsibility on the example of activity of Saratovneftegaz branches during the 1950s 1980s pp. 81-89

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2020.1.31504

Abstract:
The article is retargeted due to the fact that a similar text was published by the author earlier: R.V. Gribov Cultural inversion of the concept of social responsibility on the example of the activities of the units of Saratovneftegas in 1950-80. // Culture and civilization. 2019.No 6A. T. 9.P. 33-42. DOI: 10.34670 / AR.2020.46.4.004
The subject of this research is the historical experience of interaction between industrial complex and social infrastructure. The object of this research is the oil and gas sector of Saratov Region in the 1950’s – 1980’s. The author examines the formation of the national tradition of social responsibility; interaction of the national culture of production with liberal tradition; specificity of civilizational base of national culture in the aspect of responsibility depending on cultural environment; methods of organization of living floor space by enterprises; regional aspects of the question of organization of production. In the course of this study, the author used the methods characteristic for historical-culturological approach: comparative, statistical, and retrospective. Having analyzes the materials from state archives along with archives and museums of enterprises, the author concludes on the existence of two stages in formation of the concept of social responsibility of enterprises. Analysis of the activity of enterprises of oil and gas sector in the period from 1950’s to 1980’s allows underlining substantial cultural differences in interpretation of social responsibility in the conditions of Russian reality and liberal tradition.
Culture and Cult
Babich I.L. - The reflection of spiritual crisis of the late XIX century among creative intelligentsia (on the example of relationship between the monks of male Orthodox monastery Voznesenskaya Davidova Pustyn and Chekhov family in 1892-1899) pp. 90-102

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2020.1.28733

Abstract: The subject of this research is the character of relationship between Chekhov family and the Orthodox male monastery “Voznesenskaya Davidova Pustyn”. The object of this research is the religious life of Chekhov family. The goal consists in analysis of the religious and secular contacts between the Chekhov family and the abode, clarification of the question of religiosity of the prominent Russian writer Anton Pavlovich Chekhov, as well as answering the question regarding the impact of spiritual crisis of the late XIX upon him. The article explores the life of Chekhov family in their estate in Melikhovo from 1892 to 1899. Chekhov’s parents, especially his father, was a deeply religious person. The article also discusses the relationship between the writer and monks of the monastery, his visits of worship services in the abode. Russian Chekhoviana is quite extensive; the period from 1990 to 2010’s marks the emergence of works dedicated to religious views of the writer. The article is prepared on the basis of archival and unpublished materials (particularly Chekhov’s correspondence and the diary of his father Pavel Egorovich). The modern publications usually underline the presence of staunch atheistic creeds. Sometimes his life in Melikhovo is described without mentioning contacts with the monastery. This article is first to determine the problem of relationship of Chekhov family and one of the male monasteries of Moscow Region.
Ethnology and cultural anthropology
Marfusalova V.P. - Functional and ethnocultural meaning of traditional garments of peoples of the North (on the example of winter clothing of the Evenki) pp. 103-109

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2020.1.31529

Abstract: The subject of this research is traditional garments of the Evenki – an indigenous ethnic community of the North. The Evenki are widely scattered due to the nomadic lifestyle. At the same time, they preserve the sustainable ethnocultural cluster united as a single nation. The article examines winter outfitting of the Evenki, as well as analyzes the functionality of its elements, decorativeness and aesthetics. The classic winter garment consists of six parts fastened between each other with leather laces. It is meant for keeping them warm, and was created for convenience during the time of hunting or other activities. The Evenki retained and continue to develop such functional significance in their current daily activities. The clothing embroidery used to have sacred meaning and carried a specific information load that must be considered in making the modern traditional clothing. The research methodology is based on the analysis of literary sources, examination of the object of research from the perspective of historical-ethnographic value, practical implication and aesthetic value. The following conclusions were made: the functionality of garments of the nomadic peoples of the North is an important factor that requires comprehensive and systemic analysis for the purpose of its utilization in the current living conditions in Arctic region; traditional clothing of the Evenki is first and foremost meant for heat conservation and convenience during hunting and other activities; this functional significance is being preserved in the modern life activities; the décor used to carry sacred meaning, which must be taken into account in making the modern traditional garments.
Culture of the mundane
Ippolitov S.S. - Russian humanitarian organization on the German job market as a factor of adaptation of Russian refugees in the 1919-1920s pp. 110-122

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2020.1.31912

Abstract: The subject of this research is the job market and legal situation in Germany in the 1920’s in the context of arrival of a large number of Russian refugees and former World War I prisoners; activity of the Russian social and professional organizations on overcoming humanitarian crisis faced by the compatriots in exile; process of reproduction of organizational structures of the Russian humanitarian activity in Europe; legal and economic framework of their activity abroad; role of humanitarian organizations in Germany in the process of employment of Russian refugees. Methodology is based on the principles of historicism and systematicity. The latter implies examination of the articulated problem in inseparable connection with the ongoing social processes and events during a specific historical period. For the first time, the history of Russian first-wave émigré is viewed through the prism of processes taking place in the area of labor relations of Russian refugees and German society; as a story of people who faced a severe humanitarian crisis. Sociocultural stress incurred by millions of compatriots caused such phenomena as marginalization and denationalization on a massive scale. The article reflects the role of humanitarian activity in counteracting the aforementioned crisis processes of the examined period.
Audiovisual culture and art
Batova M.A. - Suggestive techniques of screenwriting: taboo and unpredictability pp. 123-131

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2020.1.31706

Abstract: The subject of this research is the suggestive techniques of screenwriting on various level of perception of the movie, which engage the audience into cinematographic scene. The majority of movies reproduce the topic of social taboo, pulling upon the forbidden desires, and thus, instigating the audience. Such movies intend to distort the socially accepted moral and ethical restrictions, blurring the boundaries of the generally accepted standard. Alongside the violation of social taboo, one of the most important elements of drawing attention of the audience is unpredictability, used in dramaturgy to create an effect of incompleteness of story and the desire to reveal it. The research is based on the analytical and comparative methods, which allow analyzing particular effects intended by the author at the conceptual and dramaturgical level of the screen work. As a suggestive dramaturgical element, unpredictability can be reflected as a deferred event or a unpredictability  that forms the screen image and character of the hero. Analysis is conducted on the movies “The Return” (2003), “Loveless” (2017) directed by Andrey Zvyagintsev; “Fight Club” (1999) directed by David Fincher; “The Departed” (2006) directed by Martin Scorsese; “Melancholia” (2011) directed by Lars von Trier. The research result consists in characterization of the modern trend of preserving unpredictability within a narrative structure of the movie to maintain non-triviality of the storyline.
Art and Art History
Gryzunova A. - Portraits of the representatives of Vorontsov family painted by Sir Thomas Lawrence pp. 132-140

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2020.1.30688

Abstract: The subject of this article is the portraits of the members of Vorontsov family – a Russian family of diplomats inseparably connected with Great Britain and Russia. These works were painted by the British artist Sir Thomas Lawrence (1769-1830) in the early XIX century, featuring the portraits of S. R. Vorontsov (in 1805-1806), Y. S. Pembroke (in 1808), M. S. Vorontsov and graphic painting of E. K. Vorontsova (in 1821). The method of research consists in a detailed comprehensive examination of the depiction of the members of Vorontsov family. Main emphasis is made on the comparative analysis of reminiscences of the contemporaries on the model and artistic style of T. Lawrence’s works. The scientific novelty consists in viewing these portraits from one of the perspective of Russian-British artistic ties of the early XIX century – the connection between Lawrence and Russia, and broadening of catalogue descriptions with new records. The comparison of graphic and painting works of T. Lawrence with written reminiscences on the presented models proves that portraits of his authorship minutely reflect the inner world of the models and the impression they created on their contemporaries.
Piryazeva E.N. - Trautonium: peculiarities of compositions for the electronic musical instrument pp. 141-148

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2020.1.32243

Abstract: The subject of this research is the electronic musical instrument trautonium and characteristic features of compositions written for this instrument. The advancement of electronic music and its instruments is substantiated by innovative transformation, constant emergence of new devices, their improvement and phasing out or transitions into a new generation of devices. One of such electronic musical instruments is trautonium, invented in the first half of the XX century. It did not gain much popularity, but gather its own repertoire and library of video and audio recordings. In the course of this research, the author applied the following methods: historical and systemic approaches; methods of integral, structural, stylistic, and comparative analysis. The novelty is defined consists in the subject of research, range of compositions attracted for musicological analysis, and the angle of their view. The author determines the common to compositions for trautonium concert character of performance reflected in the set of aesthetic and technological principles on various levels of musical composition.
History of art
Meretskaya Y.S. - The analysis of artistic heritage of Anton Ažbe in light of the new facts pp. 149-160

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2020.1.29726

Abstract: The object of this research is the artistic heritage of Slovenian painter and teacher of painting Anton Ažbe (1862-1905) and its interpretation in the works of art historians and testimonies of his students and contemporaries. The subject of this research is the graphic and painting works of Anton Ažbe. The goal consists in reconsideration of the existing within modern art history understanding of the vector of creative path of the painter. Particular attention is given to his painting “The Black Girl” and clarification of the date of its creation. In the course of writing this article, the author applied the method of formal-stylistic analysis for meeting the precise purpose of the article. The scientific novelty of this study consists in reinterpretation of creative development of the Slovenian painter and teacher of painting Anton Ažbe based on the new information of the date of creation of one of his signature paintings – “The Black Girl”. The main conclusion lies in characteristics of the evolutionary stages of creative development of Anton Ažbe.
Architecture and design
Lebedev N. - The experience of design engineering of industrial equipment: to the question on standardization in industrial design (based on the project of modernization of testing equipment of the Indian company BiSS) pp. 161-184

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2020.1.31943

Abstract: Relevance of the covered in this article questions of referring to standardization in the course of design engineering is defined nu the observed over the recent decade changes in the character of organization of the surrounding a human object world, its complication and growing disarray. The subject of research is the specificity of implementation of standardization principles in project engineering of industrial design with emphasis on interpretation of the latter as the activity on development of user experience. Special attention is given to the description and analysis of experience of referring to project capabilities of standardization in the course of developing design for industrial testing equipment. The author examines the modern research in the area of industrial design, as well classical works in the field of design theory. The scientific novelty consists in determination and specification of the role of standardization in modern industrial design, which currently underlies the development of experience of user interaction. An important outcome became the creation of a project, which novelty is substantiated by international patent. The result of implementation of standardization principles in the course of design engineering of control and protection mechanisms of testing equipment lies in the complex solution of such tasks, as ensuring stylistic unity of the entire product line, ergonomics of operators’ positions, conservation of material, human and time resources. The author outlines the prospects of implementation of standardization in industrial design in the nearest futures due to the need for bringing a growing array of technical devices to a common standard.
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