Man and Culture - 4 2019
Man and Culture
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Man and Culture" > Contents of Issue 04/2019
Contents of Issue 04/2019
Culture and cultures
Novosiltseva O.V. - Russian world in the United States in 1991 early 2000s: sociocultural activity and dialogue with Russia pp. 1-11

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2019.4.30218

Abstract: The subject of this research is the evolution of the institutional structure, social base, ideology, trends and priorities of the activity of public organizations of the Russian diaspora in the United State at the turn of the XX – XXI centuries. Focus of attention is the cultural-educational societies, publishers, humanitarian foundations of the Russian America that has established relationships with Russia during the post-Soviet period, as well as the new public organizations formed within the Russian-speaking communities of New York, San Francisco, Houston, and other US cities in the late 1990’s – early 2000’s. The research methodology is based on the fundamental principles of historical science – historicism, scientific validity, and objectivity. The author also applies the systemic and contextual analysis, comparative and other special methods of historical research. The scientific novelty lies in determination of development trends of public organizations of Russian diaspora in the United States over the period from 1991 to the early 2000’s. The study demonstrates that in the context of conducting democratic reforms in Russia, the ideological component in the life of Russian America recedes into the background. The priority vectors of public activity of the Russian-American intelligentsia becomes the cultural dialogue with Russia, implementation of humanitarian and educational projects in the historical motherland. In the late 1990’s – early 2000’s, within the framework of Russian-speaking communities in the United States, appears a number of new social centers aimed at the promotion of the Russian language and culture in the United States, which activity reflected the socio-mental image of Russian Americans of the early XXI century, their interest in the dialogue with Russia and international world of the Russian compatriots.
Audiovisual culture and art
Stepanova P.M. - Visual anthropology as a basic part of the script of the role in screen performances of Fyodor Nikitin in the 1920s pp. 12-19

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2019.4.30347

Abstract: Visual anthropology is viewed from the perspective of usage of the dominants of corporeal apparatus of the actor within a film frame, as a script of archetypical images structured by the filmmaker, as well as individual corporeality of the actor. The article analyzes the roles of Fyodor Nikitin in F. Ermler’s films of the late 1920’s : Katka's Reinette Apples (1926 with E. Ioganson), The House in the Snow-Drifts (1927), The Parisian Cobbler (1927), Fragment of an Empire (1929). The author applies the method of cultural anthropology, leaning on the works of M. Bakhtin, M. Eliade, and C. Jung. The article is firs to touch upon the problem of creating a screen image based on the two independent from each other scripts: visual is created using the corporeal nature of the actor and film editing approach of the director, and has powerful influence on the emotions of the audience; the inner is based on the unique actorly nature and can be autonomous from the created by an actor image, reaches the level of personal sensible experience of an actor. Similar principles of the work of actor and film director were also used in the theatre of Jerzy Grotowski in the 1960’s, The author concludes that the key principles for creating the unique screen images that can become the basics for a modern film actor have already been formulated and developed.
Cultural heritage, tradition and innovation
Karelina N.A. - Aboriginal tourism a one of the steps towards preservation and development of the culture of Canadas indigenous population pp. 20-25

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2019.4.30482

Abstract: The subject of this research is the development of aboriginal tourism in Canada as one of the priority directions towards preservation and development of the cultural heritage of its indigenous population. Aboriginal tourism in Canada is define by the activity of such tourism agencies and organizations, which mostly belong to the representatives of indigenous people – First Nations, Métis, Inuit, managed and/or controlled by them. Special emphasis is made to the economic indicators of such type of tourism industry, as well as the core activities of aboriginal tourism agencies, their concept and development trends from the perspective of sustainable development of the territories used for preservation and promotion of the traditional cultural practices and language of the First Nations communities. The conducted research demonstrates the sustainable development of aboriginal tourism in Canada, escalating interest of tourists and the indigenous population. One of the key factors contributing to such increase becomes the tourists’ intention to obtain new cultural experience and knowledge, along with the desire of aboriginal communities to improve their socioeconomic situation and promote further preservation of the traditional economy and native culture. Therefore, the author underlines the annual increase in employment rate among the representatives of indigenous population and the range of tourist activities implemented by them. Such experience is of special practical importance for the creation of regional programs for support and development of the indigenous minorities of Russia.
Audiovisual culture and art
Bezenkova M.V. - The establishment of canonic elements in Russian cinematography of the first decade of the XXI century pp. 26-37

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2019.4.30506

Abstract: The subject of this research is the transformation of the screen canon in Russian films of the first decade of the XXI century. The article meticulously analyzes the three new trends characteristic to the films of this period, which in the author’s opinion, reflect the new canonic features of Russian cinematography. The first trend – emergence of a hero able to take action. The second trend pertains to formation of a new mythological structure of the past, visualized in modern national war films. The third trend is associated with delineation of space and functioning of film characters, which forms a new look of a screen worldview. The main conclusion lies in the idea of formation of a new image of full-fledged hero, establishment of a new canon of capturing the spatial elements of screen environment along with the new ideologemes aimed at structural moral-ethical principles of the audience. The concept of canon is justified by the development of figurative language of the films of the first decade of the XXI century.
Culture and cultures
Bogdanova M.V. - Sociocultural aspects of the Orthodox wedding ceremony in modern Russia pp. 38-44

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2019.4.30443

Abstract: The object of this research is the wedding religious ritual in the modern Orthodoxy. The subject of this research is the structure of wedding rituals in modern Orthodoxy. Special attention is given to experimental study of certain rituals of the wedding ceremony for revealing the specificity of Orthodox wedding ceremony as a cultural system. It is worth noting that the author adheres to the principle of understanding religion as a sociocultural phenomenon and believes that isolated study of religious rituals that excludes reference to non-ritual practices and non-religious values is inefficient. The scientific novelty consists in the first attempt within the national and foreign culturology to comprehensively study the modern Orthodox wedding ceremony as a cultural system that functions in a multilayered sociocultural context of modernity. The author concludes that it is possible to divide rituals of the Orthodox wedding ceremony into two groups: “festivity” and “sacrament”. It is underlined that significant impact upon the semantics of the Orthodox wedding ceremony is a factor of its inclusion, or on the contrary, non-inclusion into the overall wedding complex. The conducted analysis proves that the Orthodox wedding ceremony as a cultural system is not the once-and-for-all ritual pattern, reproduced without any changes under the various circumstances.
Music and music culture
Tokarev N.A. - Modern performing art of playing the trumpet in the Moscow Conservatory pp. 45-54

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2019.4.30204

Abstract: The subject of this research is the modern performing school of playing the trumpet at the Moscow Conservatory. The article reviews the modern professional training in the art of playing the trumpet and the activity of pedagogues-trumpeters of the Moscow Conservatory since 1970 until now. The author traces the evolution of the modern performing school of playing the trumpet, highlights the basic artistic principles of the pedagogues-trumpeters of the Moscow Conservatory, similarities and differences in their methods and performing principles. The article provides the previously known information of their creative activity, as well as the new facts obtained through conversations and interview. The selected complex methodology combines the logical analysis, retrospective method, chronological method, systemic analysis, comparative and descriptive analysis, method of classification; analytical, and historiographical approaches towards studying documental materials. The scientific novelty consists in the detailed coverage of the work of V. Novikov, A. Ikov, A. Korniliev, V. Lavrik and L. Guryev in the Moscow Conservatory, description of similarities and differences in their methods, innovations, continuity of pedagogical and performing traditions and principles.
Theoretical culturology and the theory of culture
Kumakova D.B. - Artistic research and the concept of art as a production of knowledge: origins and contradictions pp. 55-61

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2019.4.30629

Abstract: The object of this research is the contemporary artistic practices formed in the field of art following the 1960’s. The subject of this research is the specificity of artistic research and the concept of “art as a production of knowledge”. Main attention is given to the social origins of this phenomenon, which the author sees in the development of immaterial labor and dematerialization of the work of art. The article also reviews the basic prerequisites for the formation of artistic research as an art practice, as well as determines its peculiarities. In the course of this research, the author applies the general scientific methods, such as: conceptualization, empirical material, interpretative method, method of systematicity in studying cultural occurrences, as well as dialectical approach that allows detecting contradictions and multidirectional trends within the phenomenon under consideration. The scientific novelty consists in determination of the key characteristics of artistic research as an art practice. The research result lies in multidimensional description of the new phenomenon of artistic live along with its impact upon the artistic environment, as well as demonstration of examples of the recent artistic research conducted in Russia.
Ethnology and cultural anthropology
Yakovleva K.M., Prokopieva A.N. - Yakut traditional costume: the search for identity pp. 62-70

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2019.4.28738

Abstract: This article considers the Yakut traditional costume, which has attracted particular attention of the public and scholars in Sakha Republic (Yakutia) since 1990’s. For the past quarter of a century, Yakut folk costume became an object of the various experiments and reconstructions in the process of reviving national traditions. Such peculiar attitude on the traditional costume demonstrates the transformation of people’s ethnic identity, which developed under the influence of the national and regional historical events, and at this point has reached completion. The theoretical-methodological basis for this research in accordance with its interdisciplinary characters consists of the following methods: systemic, historical-typological, cultural-historical, socio-cultural, ethnographic surveying and recording of oral tradition trough in-depth interview, photo and video facts. The conducted research allowed revealing particular attitude on the folk costume, and certain hidden dispute in the society concerning of how the Yakut traditional costume should look like. This leads to an important question: how the look of the traditional costume relates to the understanding of native culture, ethnic identity and the need to show it with differentiation of the “native and foreign”.
Audiovisual culture and art
Zaitcev A.Y. - To the question of development of Russian animation of the XXI century: the project Mountain of Gems pp. 71-78

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2019.4.29963

Abstract: This work is dedicated to the development of the Russian animation school on the example of a particular project. The object of this research is the TV series “Mountain of Gems” created in 2004-2018 by the animation studio “Pilot”. The subject of this research is the artistic and technical solution of its visual imagery. The author examines the main ideas of the project, its specificities, stylistic and technical arrangement of separate films of the project. An important factor for this analysis is that initially all creators of the project were put into the equal circumstances: dramaturgy based on the tale read by the author, equal running time, and identical studio resources. The author’s special contribution to the research of this topic along with its novelty is defined by the development and implementation of systematic analysis of the films from the cycle “Mountain of Gems” made with the use of computer technologies. The choice of films is dictated by their aesthetic value, originality and uniqueness of artistic and technical means for creating visual imagery. The author reveals the computer technologies applied in creation of these TV series. The main conclusions emphasize the role and contribution of this project to the development of Russian animation.
Styles, trends, schools
Devyatov V.S. - Russian folk song in the scenic conditions and ways to preserve it pp. 79-90

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2019.4.29796

Abstract: This article is dedicated to the questions of existence and preservation of the folk song tradition in Russia. The author underlines the place and role of the Russian folk song within the national culture as a collective folklore notable for its profusion and diversity. The goal of this work consists on the analysis of systemic changes currently unfolding in the folk-song culture, identification of their caused and forecasting of results of the determined characteristic trends. Functionality of the song folklore in the scenic conditions is viewed as a factor of transformation of the folk music culture. In the course of this research, the author leans on the diachronic method of culturological analysis; as well as applies the comparative-historical and structural functional approaches. The article determines the positive and negative aspects related to innovation processes within the folk music culture; as well as suggests a set of measures aimed at preservation and popularization of the folk song art. The author underlines that the Russian folk song is an important component of the country’s cultural and historical heritage.
Music and music culture
Zingg I.V. - The evolution of harp in the context of instruments design, repertoire and performance art in the XVIII century pp. 91-99

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2019.4.30123

Abstract: Progressive development of instrument design affected the establishment of harp as one of the instruments with potential for virtuosity. Therefore, the subject of this analysis is the evolution of harp in the context of instrument’s design, repertoire and performance art in the XVIII century. The goal of the research lies in the need to reveal on the theoretical level the specificity of the phenomenon of evolution of harp, as well as the peculiarities of playing harp during the period under review. The theoretical importance is substantiated by the characteristics of the concepts “evolution of harp”, “design of harp”, “peculiarities of harp’s didactics” in the context of the history of philosophical and art knowledge. The practical significance is acknowledged by the fact that the acquired results allow examining the role of evolution of harp in a broader sense, as well as tracing the correlation between the instrument’s design and performance practice of the XVIII century. The main research method became the method of analytical study of the sources to elucidate the logics and content of the concept of “evolution of harp”. The method of comparative analysis allowed determining the correlation between the problems of universal history of the European music culture and the concept of local cultures associated with the evolution of playing harp. The scientific novelty is that this article is first to systematize the existing knowledge on the questions of evolution of harp based on examination of the idea of the universal history of music and the concept of local cultures via studying the means of musical expression, design and repertoire of harp in the XVIII century. The author underlines that the evolution of harp in the context of instrument’s design, repertoire and performance art of the XVIII is a unique sociocultural phenomenon, manifesting itself through the system of spiritual values and the essence of spiritual life of multiple nations.
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