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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Man and Culture" > Contents of Issue 01/2019
Contents of Issue 01/2019
Culture and cultures
Petrukhina O.V. - Methods and tools of applied animation in Russia at the turn of 1940s 1960s pp. 1-10

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2019.1.28734

Abstract: The object of this research is the applied animation in Russian at the turn of 1940’s – 1960’s. The author examines the development stages of applied animation, traces the transformation of the main artistic methods and tools used by the leading Soviet animators from “Soyuzmultfilm”. The research contains several stages: postwar period; Thaw period of 1950’s; era of the revival of imagery-graphical language of animation of the 1960’s. The article analyzes the prerequisites to the emergence of Soviet classical animation – from experimental works of separate animation artists to avant-garde, symbolic and secular animation created by production groups. The author underlines the impact of the applied and authorial animation of the 1940’’s – 1960’s upon the current state of the industry, as well as correlation of the cultural-historical processes. The work includes the comprehensive approach based on the analytical, historiographical, and comparative-typological methods; as well as descriptive method that includes observation, comparison, generalization, and interpretation. The main conclusions related to the unfolded during the 1940’s – 1960’s artistic trends of the emergence of new genres in animation art, and as a result, the formation of complex poly-genre interconnections. The author’s main contribution to this research lies in systematization of the methods, tools and technologies in the Soviet applied animation at the turn of 1940’s – 1960’s.
Shvetsova O.Y., Dmitriev V.A. - Oratory works of George Frideric Handel on the example of the oratorio Judas Maccabaeus pp. 11-22

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2019.1.28205

Abstract: This article suggest to examine the oratorio “Judas Maccabaeus” by G. F. Handel from the perspective of the tradition and realization of attributes of the genre in Western European art. The object of this research is the oratory works of G. F. Handel, while the subject is the determination of the system of music elements that comprise a musical act in the genre under consideration on the example of the oratorio “Judas Maccabaeus”. The goal of this study lies in the analysis of realization of the expressive and visual approaches of composer’s writing, traits of the characters, demonstration of the peculiarities of musical dramaturgy of the oratorio. Handel’s oratorios is the phenomenon that genetically relates to the various phenomena of art and philosophy; therefore, the author applies the comprehensive method of research, combining the historical and theoretical approaches towards the studying of the semantics of plot, space-time processes. Genre priorities, interaction of the collective and individual beginnings. The scientific novelty lies in the analysis of compositional-dramaturgical peculiarities of the oratory “Judas Maccabaeus”, musical and expressive means, as well as description of manifestation of the nation’s identity. The presented materials can be valuable for further examination of the Baroque music and performance technique.
Zykin A. - The problem of reviving the traditional culture of Tuvan ethnos during the post-Soviet period pp. 23-31

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2019.1.28729

Abstract: This article examines the traditional culture of Tuva during the post-Soviet period, and represents a logical continuation of the sequence of publications dedicated to the socio-culturological and linguo-culturological aspects of formation, evolution, and currents state of the ethnoses of Southern Siberia. The beginning of 1990’s for Tuva, its history and sociocultural situation was marked by the dissemination of the Soviet Union; there has emerged a visible trend towards the revival of traditional cultural and the return of the forgotten values, caused by the transformation of Eastern culture into the Europeanized. The Tuvan people acknowledged the contradictions between the culture of Tuvans and the genereally accepted new Soviet culture; moreover, in the political sphere of the early 1990’s has been observed the increase of nationalism and conflicts between the indigenous population and the Russians. National culture and its revival during the 1990’s were mostly a political slogan, which became an instrument for acquiring power. The occurrence of difficulties in the economic and sociocultural spheres with onset of the 1990’s can be referred to as “crisis”. It affected absolutely all spheres of life in the republic: the economic and political areas, as well as the society and its culture.
Applied culturology
Kucherenko A.L. - Certain aspects of dance improvisation as the basis of personal creativity on the example of the Spanish Flamenco dance pp. 32-40

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2019.1.28628

Abstract: This article examines the improvisation in dance as the way to develop creative potential of dancer’s personality from the standpoint of practicing choreographer. It is noted that the approaches to improvisation in the performative types of art were use back in the ancient times. Currently, improvisation is becoming the foundation for certain dance disciplines. Improvisation in dance is associated with such prominent innovative choreographers as Isadora Duncan, Loie Fuller, Blanche Evan, Rudolf von Laban, and others, who saw dance improvisation as the way to discovering the unsconsious. It is underlined that improvisation is widely used in various dances, including folk and modern. The author presents a detailed analysis of improvisational beginning in the Spanish Flamenco dance, which is based mostly on improvising. According to the study conducted via overt observation and surveying of the Russian Flamenco performers, the readiness for improvising increases proportionally with age of the respondents. It is concluded that improvisation in dance is the criterion for performer’s professionalism, contributes to the development of his intellectual and creative abilities, as well as emotional empowerment. Performers themselves perceive improvisation as the psychological challenge they are able to take. The author also  discovers that the elements of dance improvisation can be implemented in educational sphere, for example, in teaching foreign languages.
Historical culturology and the history of culture
Shapiro B. - Russian cavalry in the age of Frederick the Great: cultural conflict or a cultural dialogue? pp. 41-56

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2019.1.28891

Abstract: The development of cavalry art of the XVIII century closely relates to the achievements of the Prussian military system. The subject of this research is the dynamics of development of the Russian cavalry that took place under the influence of ideology of Frederick the Great – inventor of the most powerful European cavalry of the middle and the end of the XVIII century. Russia was significantly influence by his ideas as well, but it depended on the attitude of a ruling monarch towards the Prussian militarism. The sources for this study became the military-administrative and military-charter documents of the XVIII century. Methodological foundation is the comparative-historical method. Variable comparisons allowed determining and analyzing the common and the peculiar in organization of cavalry in Prussia and Russia at different stages; its organization is attributed with the phase of eventful history. The conducted analysis demonstrates the positive and negative sides that emerged in Russian cavalry as a result of Prussian influence. Thea author concludes that it is hard to overestimate the importance acquired by the reception achievements of Frederick the Great in Russia – it determined the foundation for the development of the national cavalry art in the next half of the century.
Cultural heritage, tradition and innovation
Iakovleva E. - Gastronomic improvisation: porridges in Tatar cuisine pp. 57-67

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2019.1.26550

Abstract: The object of this research is the Tatar national cuisine. The analysis of its recipes in the menu of Tatar people recorded in the XIX century alone led to the conclusion on the significant amount of porridges and porridge-type dishes in the first-course and second-course meals, as well as a variety of baked goods used as filling. Porridge making of Tatar people has ancient roots, which is substantiated by their agricultural activity, growing grain and legumes. The popularity of porridges in everyday and festive menu is the indicator of the nutrition value, as it is rich with protein, carbs and vitamins. Cooked in a large kettle over an open fire porridges become a powerful cultural symbol of bringing people together, fruitfulness, prosperity and abundance. The author puts forwards a hypothesis that the Tatar delicacy chak-chak made out of flour, eggs and honey epitomizes grain and becomes a symbolic substitution of porridge during the teatime.
Iakovleva E. - Reconstruction of gastronomic code of the Tatar national cuisine pp. 68-79

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2019.1.26945

Abstract: The object of this research is the analysis of specificity of national cuisine of the Tatars of the Middle Volga Region and Trans-Urals of the late XIX – early XX century for the purpose of determination of its gastronomic code. It formation was strongly affected by the natural-geographic, cultural-historical and religious factors. In accordance with the recipes, gastronomic code of the Tatar people contains a certain set of food products, their combination, and cooking technique; it also reflects the life stance of the nation, which considers food as divine gifts, luxury and blessing. This is demonstrated in folk wisdom and hospitability of the Tatars, who have respect for the cooking process and tasting of food. Gastronomic code was structured at the intersection of the intuitive, emotional and rational, material and spiritual, which formed the image of food of the Tatar people. The indicated problematic is viewed by means of the cultural-historical analysis and studying of recipes that allow confirming the hypothesis on the existence of gastronomic code in the culture of the Tatar people of the Middle Volga Region and Trans-Urals of the late XIX – early XX century. The author makes an attempt to reconstruct their gastronomic code, determining its main components. The presented material can be valuable for the future research on gastronomic code of the Tatar national cuisine, dynamic of its development, as well as correlation between the culture and tradition of the nation.
Belozor A.F. - Cultural security as the foundation of cultural identity pp. 80-86

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2019.1.28819

Abstract: The goal of this research is to reveal the significance of cultural security of a carrier of certain religious and ethical values as the foundation of their cultural self-determination. The article analyzes the essence of the phenomenon of cultural security, its role and place within the national and global security. The author describes the gravity of considering the factors of cultural identity and multiculturalism in development of the strategy of global security. Special attention is given to the importance of realization of the own cultural security by the carriers of various cultures living in the same country. The author presents the analysis of different scientific approaches towards the content of the concept of “cultural security”. Terminological chain of “cultural identity”, “cultural threat”, “multiculturalism” is also introduced into the content of research. The object of this publication is the cultural security, while the subject is the impact of cultural threats upon the cultural self-identity. The scientific novelty consists in the comprehensive analysis of the poly-object specificity and subject field of cultural security, as well as its influence upon the formation by an individual of their cultural identity. The author concludes that the correlation between the culture, cultural self-identity and security is the fixative link within the processes of social life. In this case, culture manifests as a competent element of national and international security due to is multi-aspect character. The realization by the representatives of national minorities and titular nation of the security of their cultures, traditions, material and religious heritage is the key factor for preserving the conflict-free situation in the country, as well as establishment of the spiritual and ethical unity of the citizens.
Scenic arts
Solntsev I.S. - Modern stage circus production in the context of synthesis of various forms of spectator entertainment pp. 87-100

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2019.1.28499

Abstract: The subject of this art study is the modern stage circus production viewed as a mechanism of the development of synthesis of spectator entertainment. The scientific interest is also aimed at the characteristics of work of the stage director, which is based on rearrangement of the creative experience, its recombination in relation with the principles of the successiveness of forms. The author analyzes the specificity of circus production, which is in integration of the newest approaches of performance organization on the arena with the classical types of circus art. Methodological foundation contains the general principles of scientific knowledge that correspond with the art and culturological discourses. The scientific novelty consists in the comprehensive theoretical conceptualization of the establishment and pattern of the development of stage circus production in art that reflects the centuries-old ethnocultural and artistic experience, which makes it unique. The author also suggests a new outlook upon the stylistics of circus art and examples of circus production.
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