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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Man and Culture" > Contents of Issue є 05/2016
Contents of Issue є 05/2016
Arts and crafts
Berezina E. - УThe town in the snuff-boxФ: the image of a city in the Russian and Soviet lacquer miniature pp. 1-13

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8744.2016.5.19106

Abstract: Based on the visual material of the collection “Russian lacquer miniature” of the Russian Museum of Decorative-Applied and Folk Art, the author examines the gallery of city images in the Russian and Soviet lacquer miniature, as well as suggest the original typology of images, locating them between the poles of the “real” and “utopic”. The images of the city panoramas were analyzed in the context of the replacing each other “regimes of vision” and supported by the power of technologies territories. The author describes the changed in the approaches towards representation of the urban space in the lacquer art, as well as follows the transformations the image of a city in perception of its residents. From the methodological perspective, the author bases herself upon the principles of visual research and structures the analysis of the content of images taking into account the social context of their existence. This work develops the tradition of studying the subjects with lacquer paining as a part of the Russian and Soviet material culture. Along with the introduction into the scientific discourse of the new visual historical sources, the result of the research consists in the fixation of the accompanying the change of historical eras dynamic of the visual culture, which is expressed in expansion of the “principles of vision” of the urban space, as well as the types of its imagery on the subjects with the lacquer miniature painting.
Music and music culture
Sambueva S., Lygdenova V.B. - E. D. Prozorova: from the history of theatrical and music education in Buryatia pp. 14-23

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8744.2016.5.20197

Abstract: The relevance of this topic first and foremost is associated with the small number of research dedicated to the work of the College of Arts named after P. I. Tchaikovsky. The main attention is given to the revelation of the importance of persona of the Honored Art Worker of the Buryat-Mongolian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic Ekaterina Dmitrievna Mironskaya-Prozorova, who was the head of this educational facility over the period of 1944-1958. Through the coverage of various aspects of her work, the authors follow and give a generalized characteristic to the establishment and development of the theatrical and music education in Buryatia. The results of this research can serve as the starting point for the further examination of the processes of establishment of the theatrical and music education of Buryatia. The area of implementation of the results includes the history of culture of Buryatia, preservation of the cultural heritage, history of theatrical education of Buryatia, history of music education of Buryatia, as well as the history of P. I. Tchaikovsky College of Arts.   
Art and Art History
Belonosova I.V. - Peculiarities of the embodiment of suite genre in the compositions of Evgeny Kravtsov pp. 24-33

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8744.2016.5.20389

Abstract: This article is first to examine the chamber-instrumental compositions of the Siberian composer E. N. Kravtsov. The author suggests a thought that the suites created during the period of 1964-2000 for piano and violin and piano, comprise a specific page of the composer’s works, demonstrating the version of composition of the baroque suite. The main compositional features of the baroque suite and the level of their realization in Kravtsov’s works are being analyzed. The historical angle allows determining the main invariant of the baroque suite and its importance for all of the further historical epochs. The most essential features of the baroque suite are examines in the context of comparative analysis of the compositional models of the suites of E. Kravtsov and other composers, including the Western European. The conclusion is made that the invariant of the baroque suite was viewed by the composer as a model and symbol of the Baroque Period, as well as embodied the ideal of the harmonic and classically balanced musical composition. The presented in the article statements are confirmed and clarified in the detailed analytical schemes. The article expands the ideas about the specificities of the chamber-instrumental suite in the works of the contemporary Russian composers.
Music and music culture
Sambueva S., Dugarova T. - Music education of Buryatia: establishment and development of P. I. Tchaikovsky College of Arts pp. 34-43

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8744.2016.5.20769

Abstract: The object of this research is the system of professional music education during the period of 1920-1940. The subject is the history of establishment and development of the first in the Republic of Buryatia music school – College of Arts named after P. I. Tchaikovsky. The relevance of the study of the history of music education is substantiation by the need for understanding the aspects of development of the national culture and education. The results of the research can serve as the starting point for creation of the innovation institutions in the sphere of music education, which would preserve the best national traditions of the Republic. The area of application of the results is the history of culture of Buryatia, as well as history of P. I. Tchaikovsky College of Arts. The scientific novelty of this work consists in the fact that it provides a complete picture of the establishment and development of P. I. Tchaikovsky College of Art in the 1920-1940’s in the context of the specific historical circumstances of Soviet society. The authors demonstrate the impact of state policy upon formation and development of the professional music education in the Republic, as well as introduce the unique archive materials into the scientific discourse.
Culture and cultures
Aleksandrov N.N. - Three manners in works of László Moholy-Nagy pp. 44-57

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8744.2016.5.19177

Abstract: The subject of this research is the creative path of the prominent representative of modernism of the early XX century – international constructivist László Moholy-Nagy. The article is based on the materials of the prepared by the author monograph with the full review about the creative work of László Moholy-Nagy. Classification of the periods of master’s creative work associated with the general status of the cycles of culture and stylistic nuances of the era is presented in this article. The author examines the specificity of his works in 1920’s and 1930’s; and the period of the early 1940’s has been terminated due to the death of the Moholy-Nagy. Multiple illustrations of his works that characterize the three mentioned periods are presented in the article. This work is written from the perspective of systemic and genetic methods in art studies. The structural-cyclical model that allows describing his creative paths is applied. Scientific novelty consists in the fact that this is the first generalizing publication of such type about László Moholy-Nagy in Russian language. But, taking into account the foreign sources, we can state that other researchers of his creative work did not formulate a similar periodization, as well as never considered his works as inscribed into the context of mental evolution in the XX century.
Suvorkina E.N. - Mass media and media production as the segments of Russian industry of the childhood subculture: constitutional grounds of economic-legal substitute phenomena pp. 58-74

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8744.2016.5.20799

Abstract: This article examines the economic and legal grounds of the two substitute phenomena – segments of the merchandise market (industry) of the childhood subculture. It is demonstrated that the printed publications realize the constitutional right to freedom of speech to the full extent, as well as take into account that the absence of censorship does not mean the use of the offensive language. In addition to that, and what is mostly important at the present time, the magazines are published in national languages, which serves as the proof of implementation by the Russian Federation of the policy of preservation of the languages and culture of native people. The main positions and conclusions of the conducted research can be used in the conditions of demand for regulation of the work of various segments of the industry of the childhood subculture (particularly the segments of mass media and media production) as the economic-legal phenomena in accordance with the Constitution of the Russian Federation and acting legislation base. This will allow turning the children’s products market more civilized and oriented towards not only the financial component, but also formation of a “healthy” information space for the children.
Culture and Cult
Voronicheva O.V. - Specificity of comprehension of the Orthodox sacred places in Bryansk text pp. 75-82

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8744.2016.5.20214

Abstract: This article analyzes the cultural space of Bryansk from the position of reflection of the Orthodox life ans its impact upon the image and fate of the city, the foundation of which took place three years prior to the Christianization of Rus. The goal of the research consists in determination of specificity of representation of the image of Bryansk as the carrier of Christian values. Despite the variety of Christian themes, motives and images demonstrated in Bryansk text, the role of Orthodoxy in the establishment and development of the urban culture is yet to be understood. The author makes an attempt to read the Bryansk text, the sources of which include the historical myths, cultural landscape, language of the city, and literary texts that preserve the eventful four thousand year history of the topos. Semiotic reading of the Bryansk text considering its evolution, allowed determining the dominant images of the cultural space, which embody the Orthodox sacred places and reflect the fate of Christianity in Russia. Such places are the Pokrovskaya Hill with the temple complex, Svensky Uspensky Monastery, and others. The existence of godonyms formed from the names of the cathedrals testify about the structural and meaning-making role of the churches in urban space.
Audiovisual culture and art
Zhemchugova O. - The evolution of characters of the mainstream cinema of the Unites States and Soviet Union/Russia pp. 83-92

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8744.2016.5.20781

Abstract: This research examines the mainstream cinema of the United States and Soviet Union. Despite the ideological polarity, the culture of these countries was interconnected in multiple way; it incorporated similar tools for expansion of the important symbols, as well as expression of public moods. In the preceding war period, the movie characters of the two countries were rather alike – they lived within the space of the perfect dream that corresponds with the relevant values of this era. However, in the post-War period, the evolution of the heroes of mainstream cinema of the United States and Soviet Union started has taken different courses. The main result of the conducted research consists in determination of regularities in development of the images of protagonists in the mainstream cinema of the United States and Soviet Union/Russia. It is demonstrated that in the US movies the priority in such images belongs to the individual as such, while in the Russian cinematographer – to the interrelation between individual and society. This article illustrates the reason why such pattern was taking place.   
Fine arts
Shokolo I.N. - Typical and individual in portraits of the clergy by Boris Kustodiev pp. 93-105

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8744.2016.5.20479

Abstract:  This article is devoted to the insufficiently studied aspect of the creative work of Boris Kustodiev – the portraits of Russian clergy. The examined in complex composition, capture the period from 1901 through 1920: from the female portrait created during the school years in the Imperial Academy of Arts, custom ordered works and sketches, until the two sheets from the late water-color series “The Russian types”. The author suggests the application of the categories of “individual” and “typical” for the analysis of artistic images of priests and monks created by maestro. The paintings are presented in chronological order of their creation. The author carries out the stylistic and compositional assessment, which allows tracing the development and use of the coloristic and decorative principles as the main means of artistic expression within the traditions of the Russian realistic school. The scientific novelty marks the path of formation and perception by the artist of a clerical image from the individual characteristic of the model towards the generalized and important. In conclusion, the author defines the theme of the portrait of clergy in Kustodiev’s creative work as an intrinsic part of his outlook upon the “Russian” and the “national”.
Architecture and design
Gudkova T.V. - Architectural-artistic expression of style and way of life in a minimalist living space pp. 106-114

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8744.2016.5.20409

Abstract: The subject of this study is the architectural-artistic expression of style ofl ife and ways of life in the residential minimalistic architectural space. The article discusses the architectural living space as a small social space, which has similar characteristics to the general concept, but at the same time, it has specific features. The generality of the functions of architectural space as a more general category, and residential architectural space, gives reason to research it on par with other architectural social spaces. The author marked features that are typical to minimalistic architectural space, as well as reflect the way and style of life. Based on the anthropological approach, minimalistic residential architectural space is considered as a special way of objectifying itself through architectural and artistic means of style and way of life. By the virtue of the basic stylistic means of minimalistic architecture, the author concludes that the leading means of the architectural-artistic expression of the style and ways of life in minimalistic living space consist in simplicity, hollowness, and functionality: simplicity in everything (objects, furniture, surfaces, functions, etc.); hollowness of the inner space (no things with minimum of the furniture); as well as the quality and high-tech functionality of vital processes in the "sleep-awake" mode.
Music and music culture
Bayarsaikhan S.B. - Saxophone in symphonic score pp. 115-124

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8744.2016.5.20625

Abstract:  This article examines one of the important but insufficiently studied problems of orchestration, musicology, as well as music pedagogy – the use by the authors the opera-symphonic and ballet music of the saxophone family instruments in their creative work. Based on the results of the study of a number of the original score of compositors’ oeuvres of various countries and cultural-historical eras, the article reveals the ways, specificities, and trends of application of the representatives of saxophone family in score of compositions for the symphony orchestra as the music-theatrical (opera, ballet, musical illustrations to dramatic compositions), as well as other directions (autonomous compositions and musical illustrations to the films). Despite the demonstrated interest of the composers to the saxophone family, such instruments have not become the permanent participants pf the symphony orchestra.  
Comparative history research
Kostyukov A.L. - Strengthening of positions of the Russian language in the world pp. 125-139

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8744.2016.5.20273

Abstract: The article is dedicated to the analysis of the status of Russian language abroad, as well as measures aimed at strengthening of its positions. Years after the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Russian language became not so popular for studying, thus the modern mechanisms regarding its promotion have outdated and lose their effectiveness. The work examines the potential opportunities and actions for strengthening of the humanitarian and political influence of Russia in near abroad and Western countries. The comparative-historical and institutional approaches comprised the theoretical-methodological foundation of this research. The author also uses the comparative approach aimed at determination of the positive experience of the institution of cultural diplomacy, which can be adjusted and find its application in practice within the framework of realization of Russia’s modern foreign policy. The Russian research do not give enough attention to the analysis of international experience in the area of implementation of cultural diplomacy as the instrument that significantly affects the successes in foreign policy; therefore, the author sets a task to influence the positions of the Russian language in the world. This will contribute into the growth of international prestige of the existing mechanisms, open new opportunities for multilateral cooperation of cultural diplomacy in form of the instrument of realization of Russia’s foreign policy with the representatives of executive authorities of foreign states on the international arena.
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