- 2 2016 - - - ISSN: 2409-8744 - NotaBene
Man and Culture
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Man and Culture" > Contents of Issue 02/2016
Contents of Issue 02/2016
Audiovisual culture and art
Obruchnikov I.M. - Continuum as a form of screen sound pp. 1-5

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8744.2016.2.18544

Abstract:  This article examines the peculiarities of realization of the aesthetic concept of screen sound in a form of continuum within the framework of formation of the audiovisual image. The determination of characteristic of details of the process of perception of the sound information by human being a recipient of screen oeuvre allows taking a more in-depth and thorough look at the nature of sound-visual image, as well as its realization in accordance with the contemporary trends in audio culture and sound aesthetics, and also suggesting a certain addition to the instruments of practical acoustical engineering in screen arts. The presented research is carried out with the attraction of certain positions of the phenomenological directions in history and psychology of art. The scientific novelty consists in the fact that the existing models of the screen arts phonography aesthetics are complemented and subjected to the development  in accordance with the actual achievements of the phenomenological directions in the history and psychology of art; the aesthetic attitude towards the screen sound is defined with regards to the modern realities of the screen culture.  
Gender studies
Ionov A. - Slasher subgenre in light of Carol J. Clovers gender theory pp. 6-15

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8744.2016.2.18615

Abstract: The author of this article turns to a number of main theses of the Carol J. Clover’s book “Men, Women, and Chain Saws” (1992), as well as analyzes if in reality they represent the intrinsic genre-defining features for the examined Clover’s subgenre. The work of Clover is the first to draw attention to such disrespectable horror subgenre by the humanitarian science, which not only revolutionized the area of gender research in cinematography, and popularized the term “shlasher”, but also firmly penetrated the contemporary pop culture. In this article, Clover’s book which still has not been translated into Russian, is subjected to a critical content-analysis. The aspect and comparative analyses of the slasher subgenre movies of 1970-2010’s are being used for the purpose of verification on authenticity of the main positions of the work of this legendary theoretician. The author of the article underlines the use of the main positions of Clover’s theory by the agents of the cinematography community, and conducts an analysis with regards to them. Calling a number of Clover’s observations fair, the author however does not believe that the others (including the “final girl” concept) are necessary for determination of the slasher subgenre.
Scenic arts
Chepinoga A.V. - Conflict fact and event as instruments of directors analysis in staging an opera spectacle pp. 16-26

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8744.2016.2.18757

Abstract: The subject of this research is the key notions of the method of active analysis of the “event” and the “conflict fact” as instruments of director’s active analysis of a play or the opera score. At the same time, special attention is given to the development of accurate definitions for each notion for the purpose of their accurate distinction. The author points out that the “event” and the “conflict fact” belong to the different stages of staging a spectacle. “Event” is necessary on the stage of conception and “table period” as instrument of dividing the plot on pieces (for the purpose s determination of motivational goals of the actions of characters), while “conflict fact” is needed on the stage of realization, in the process of working on a scene (etude) for determining an action (direct “irritators” for the emotional reactions of the actor that manifest in the physical action) within the “piece”, defined by “event”. It is demonstrated that the shift of these notions produces confusion in terminology, as well as deprives this method from its practical application by making it too massive. The author conducts a thorough examination of literature of the classicists of director’s active analysis in the drama and opera theatres, as well as the theory of drama and opera direction with the detailed quoting and note-taking. The essence of the late XX century discussion of the “event” and the “conflict fact” is being explored.
Arts and crafts
Unezheva Z., Sultanova A.M. - Womens national belt of the late XVIII the early XIX centuries pp. 27-30

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8744.2016.2.18731

Abstract:  The subject of this research is the belts to the women’s clothes of the late XVIII – the early XIX centuries. The authors conduct an analysis on designing the women’s national belt of this period from the fund of the National Historical Museum of Nalchik. Women’s clothes is directly associated with the ornamental art, particularly with jewelry accessories. Women’s belts are being studied by several different aspects: by shape, size, varieties of ornaments, designing techniques, etc. The meaning and role of belt in the life of Cherkess women is being examined. The method of this research is the study of reconstruction, designing technique and varieties of the women’s national belt, the analogue of which became the belt from the fund of the National Historical Museum of the Kabardino-Balkar Republic. The authors conclude that the silver belt were able to afford only the women from wealthy families; young ladies wore narrow belts, while the wide ones were more suitable for the status of older women. With the transformation of women’s clothes, takes place the design modification of the belt. It lost its functionality; the contemporary seamstresses simplified the shape of the belt. The world currently undergoes the processes of globalization, as well as experiences changes in the design of the ancient wares.  
Culture of art and the process of creation
Volf D. - DIY-practices in art culture: history and modernity pp. 31-40

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8744.2016.2.18768

Abstract: The subject of this research is the historical regularities of emergence and development of the DIY-practices (from English “Do It Yourself”) as a type of the amateur creative art. The author reviews different types of DIY-practices within the context of the cultural evolution from Ancient to Modern times, as well as substantiates the place of DIY-practices in the mundane aesthetics and the historical change of a human role as a subject of material and spiritual activity. The historical-genetic method along with the activity approach of this culturological research allowed determining the peculiarities of DIY-practices as a way of creative self-realization within the realm of the art culture. Scientific novelty lies in the multi-aspect retrospective examination of the DIY phenomenon from the perspective of culturology, social psychology, and history of art. The main conclusion consists in the direct connection between the post-industrial stage of social development and spread of DIY-practices in the area of art culture. It is demonstrated that the DIY phenomenon captures many spheres of the modern art culture, from applied arts to music and media arts.
Music and music culture
Zakharov Y. - At the origins of music analysis in the USSR: Lev Kulakovsky pp. 41-51

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8744.2016.2.19094

Abstract: The article discusses the scientific biography of the Soviet musicologist and folklorist Lev Kulakovsky (1897-1989). Particular attention is paid to the original methodology of melody analysis developed by Kulakovsky in 1928-1930. This methodology was based on the Theory of modal rhythm by B. Yavorsky. Kulakovsky identified three formants of melody (modal structure, mode-metric structure, melody pattern), consistently demonstrating the methods of analysis of each of them. His work shows the results of the statistical analysis of 255 songs of different nations on the basis of calculating the mode-metrical index of each tune. Kulakovsky considered melodic patterns and modal tensions as two opposing forces. Nevertheless Kulakovsky’s theory was undeservedly forgotten in the USSR due to the ideological factors. In the following years scientist turned to the study of Russian folklore; also he developed the hypothesis of syncretic unity of word and singing at “The Tale of Igor's Campaign”.
Sambueva S. - From the history of Buryat music: on some features of the composer G-D. Dashipylov vocal style based on the example of the song "Buryad Oronoym Solo" pp. 52-66

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8744.2016.2.19041

Abstract: The subject of this research is the determination and generalization of the peculiarities of the Buryat composer Gur-Darma Dashipylov (1937-1980) vocal style. The goal of this work is the study of the songwriting of one of the brightest and talented composers of Buryatia, as well as definition of his uniqueness, the role and place within the musical culture of Buryatia. This article is one of the first researches dedicated to the examination of the songwriting of the Buryat composer G-D. Dashipylov based on the example of the song “Buryad Oronoym Solo”. The materials from this research can be used in the study of musical culture and professional music of Buryatia, as well as in the music education facilities of the republic. The results of this research can serve as a starting point for the further study of the processes of establishment and development of the song genre within the creative work of the Buryat composers. The area of application of the results includes the history of culture of Buryatia, preservation of cultural heritage, songwriting, and creative work of Buryat composers. It is necessary to note the composer’s ability to achieve poetically generalized and expansive imagery and psychological depth within small, aphoristically compact form of a song, as well as embodiment in his work of the traditions of Buryat folk music. The composer’s songs reached the audience’s sympathy with their psychological sensitivity, ability to express various shades of the mood, and serve as an inspirational example for their listeners.
Culture of the mundane
Brykina Y. - Deception as an element of everyday culture of merchantry (base on the material of the early dramaturgy of A. N. Ostrovsky): historiographical aspect pp. 67-74

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8744.2016.2.18692

Abstract: The subject of this research became the topic of deception in business and personal life of merchantry in the early works of A. N. Ostrovsky. The contemporaries perceived A. N. Ostrovsky’s plays as a satire on flaws and imperfections of merchantry. Through the efforts of literary criticism of the revolutionary-democratic character, and particularly N. A. Dobrolyubov, there has been formed a public opinion about Ostrovsky as a denunciator of the “nether world”. This “world” primarily meant merchantry which supported the traditions of “Domostroy”. The goal of this research is to clarify whether or not the dramaturge was right by condemning this flaw; and the magnitude of the scale of this phenomenon within merchantry environment. The author analyzed the content of the early compositions of A. N. Ostrovsky that described the daily life of the merchantry during the pre-reformation period. The illustrated in the plays data on the motives and ways of deception within the business and personal life were compared with the memories of the representatives of this social class about this period. The scientific novelty consists in the use of the dramaturgic compositions as a historical source for the study of manifestations of deception and swindling within the entrepreneurial activity, as well as within the personal life of merchantry. Almost all storylines of Ostrovsky’s early plays are based on one or another form of deception.  He chose the position of a satirist by revealing the imperfections of this social class, which reflected on the theatrical fate of his early works. This became one of the reasons for formation of a negative stereotype about the merchantry world.  The dramaturgy of A. N. Ostrovsky can be referred to as the historical sources for examination of the entrepreneurial activity and personal life of merchantry.
Art and Art History
ZHANG Z. - Court Painting in Qing Epoch: Documentary Artworks pp. 75-90

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8744.2016.2.19406

Abstract: In article Court Painting in Qing Epoch: Documentary Artworks by Zhang Zongguang the study object is palace painting of the period specified. The subject matter is Qing epoch paintings created by palace artists and reflecting real persons and events true-to-fact. The author reviews in details works dedicated to real war actions, emperors inspection campaigns, sacrifice, ceremonies, feasts, offering gifts, hunting. Furthermore, the difference of concept realism in European and Chinese art history is outlined. The author pays special attention to demonstrate artistic features of these works and shows, how Sino-European style is manifested in some of them.Methodology base of the article is philosophical and general scientific as well as specific scientific methods and principles, such as comparative principle, historical method, system-oriented analysis, analysis and synthesis, induction and deduction; methods of art history study of large quantity of pictorial material, comparative stylistic method; cultural methods of study of socio-cultural realities, including comparative, sociological, axiological, semeiotic ones. The novel nature of the conducted investigation, particularly, on the basis of some material firstly introduced in Russian art history, is given by detailed art history description and attribution of documentary artworks, by evidenced confirmation of high artistic and historical value of the works, by verification of synergic nature of interference of Western and Chinese techniques during Qing epoch.
Music and music culture
Zakharov Y. - Heinrich Schenker's theory in Russia pp. 91-101

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8744.2016.2.19008

Abstract: The article discusses the history of the spread of H. Schenker’s doctrine in Russia. While in the English-speaking world the theory of Schenker had a powerful impact on the harmonic analysis, in the USSR it almost wasn’t known. Only through the efforts of Boris Plotnikov and Yurii Kholopov Russian musicologists were able to get acquainted with this theory at the beginning of the XXI century. The article provides an overview of publications on Schenker in Russia; in particular, we consider some works of Plotnikov.The author raises the question of the special "analytic hearing," which is educated by schenkerian methodology, as well as its inherent inevitable subjective factors.Considering the possibility of applying the theory of Schenker outside tonality the author comes to the conclusion that it can’t be entirely applied to the analysis of atonal and twelve-tone music. However, the reductive method may be isolated from Schenker’s theory in order to find the middleground pitch lines. The final part of article discusses the prospects of Schenker’s theory in Russia.
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