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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Man and Culture" > Contents of Issue № 03/2014
Contents of Issue № 03/2014
Philosophy of culture
Faritov V.T. - Hermeneutics and Transgression in Modern Cinematograph pp. 1-22

DOI:
10.7256/2306-1618.2014.3.13391

Abstract: In article specific characteristics of an esthetics of modern cinema art on the example of the philosophical analysis of the movie of David Lynch "Malkholland Drayv" are considered (2001). Two opposite ways of reading of the movie are investigated: hermeneutics and transgression. The first way assumes the interpretation reducing heterogeneous subject lines to both the uniform semantic and subject center. The second way assumes refusal of possible interpretations and the statement of openness, plurality and a transgressivnost of work. Philosophical and esthetic justification of the second approach was carried out by such authors as M. Bakhtin and Zh. Delyoz. Along with traditional methodology in article the methodological arsenal of nonclassical philosophical thought is used: semiotics, post-structuralism and deconstruction.Advantage of transgression before germenevtichesky approach for research of an esthetics of a modern cinema locates in article. The hermeneutics sends to opposition "the meaning - meant", to representation and, finally, to metaphysics and a transtsendention. Lynch's movies are based on an esthetics of other character: on the transgression eliminating an order of representation and opening plurality of heterogeneous lines, irreducible to unity. These lines are constantly crossed with each other, pass one into another, forming a difficult contrapuntal pattern. Lynch's art places us in transgressive space of true singularities and events.
Applied culturology
Koptseva N.P. - On the Question about Cultural Grounds of Corruption in Modern Russia pp. 23-50

DOI:
10.7256/2306-1618.2014.3.12905

Abstract: Object of research is the strategy of corruption behavior of modern Russians and possible cultural deep bases of these strategy. On material of the analysis of modern theories of corruption behavior and cultural texts of the Soviet writers, cinematographers, modern Russian writers the cultural bases of social communications implanted in archaic and traditional Russian cultural space are considered. The cultural practicians connected with donation and a pirovaniye contain modern Russian social communications. Distinction between strategy of corruption behavior and cultural practicians of donation and a pirovaniye has basic character and has to be considered in modern Russian social management. The methodology of research is connected with the conceptual analysis of texts of the cultural anthropologists including studying economic and social aspects of donation. The hermeneutics of cultural texts, art reprezentant of the Soviet mythological picture of the world and the Russian national image of the world was applied. Scientific novelty of research is connected with detection of interconditionality of the Soviet mythological picture of the world, the Russian national image of the world with economy and social communications of gift, a feast. Is shown that legal mechanisms of overcoming of negative consequences of corruption behavior are insufficient. It is necessary to introduce the cultural practicians based on archaic and traditional values, but transformed to new social communications and new strategy of social management.
Historical culturology and the history of culture
Arapov A.V. - Pictures in Mitreums and Their Interpretation pp. 51-63

DOI:
10.7256/2306-1618.2014.3.12881

Abstract: Object of research are images in the mitreumakh - places, гдн Mitre mysteries were made. The author claims that in each mitreum the central place was taken by the image of the Mitre, the killing sacred bull, and also that the second for value after a tavroktoniya the image in a mitreuma is the image of a feast. On this image the Mitre and the Sun feasting over the killed bull are shown, tasting various parts of his body. One more often found image according to the author: the Mitre birth from a stone. A miter it is represented by the young man appearing from a stone with a dagger in one hand and with a torch in another. In article it is also approved that the mitraistskikh of images is one of the most characteristic also leontotsefat: the naked man's figure with the lion's head twisted with a snake or two snakes as a caduceus. In research are used the comparative analysis, classical and modern researches of mitraistsky symbolism are considered. Article shows a current state of a problem of interpretation of images from mitreum. The author draws a conclusion that, the only thing that reliably is established at interpretation of a tavroktoniya is that the bull is a sacrificial animal. And to the middle of the 1970th dominating the concept of "transfer" which is put forward by Frans Kyumon was classical. In article conclusions of Kyumon who believed are also investigated that the mitraizm represented transfer of the Persian cult on the Roman soil. Mysteries of the Mitre were according to him "the Roman form of Zoroastrianism". The author notes that in the second half of the XX century on the first place interpretation according to which astronomical and astrological symbolism have key value in Mitre mysteries in general and in a tavroktoniya, in particular moved forward. Assumed Yulens that Mitr is symbolized by Perseus's constellation which in the stellar sky is located directly over constellation of the Bull. Mikael Shpaydel offered other interpretation within astronomical approach. In his opinion, Mitr corresponds to constellation of Orion. Roger Beck criticized Shpaydel and Yulansi for bukvalistsky cartographical logic of their interpretations. According to Beck Mitr is the sun which passes through constellations. Now among the academic researchers there is no consensus concerning interpretation of tauroctony. 
Audiovisual culture and art
Jdanova V.A. - Blossom of Myth. Problems of Ideological Reformation of the 1920s: Reflection in the Soviet Motion-Picture Process pp. 64-85

DOI:
10.7256/2306-1618.2014.3.13096

Abstract: Object of research is reflection in the Soviet cinema of the 1920th of social changes in society. Reflection – not always direct, mediated, metaphorical, poetic. For example, Moscow eras of military communism, the New Economic Policy – in the movie "Aelita" of Ya.A. Protazanov. In article separate aspects of the Soviet film process of the second half of the 1920th years are analyzed. Some ideological components of creativity of Dzigi Vertov are investigated. Movies "Aelita" (1924, the director Ya. Protazanov), "the Third Petty-bourgeois" (1927, the director A. Room), "The poet and the tsar" are considered from the point of view of reflection of ideology at cinema (1927, the director V. Gardin). Article is based on archival material (archival funds "Glaviskusstvo", "Sovkino" of RGALI) and the press of this period ("The Soviet cinema", "Film Week", "Film Front", etc.). The comparative analysis of sources is applied. On this period of development of the Soviet cinema scientific researches Yu.I are published recently. Goryachev, N. M. Zorkoy, V. S. Listov, E. Margolita, A. Rubaylo, V. I. Fomin and other film experts. Statement of a research objective differs in novelty: identification of projections, systems of reflection of the changing social reality in the Soviet film process of the 1920th. The characteristic in this research of details of reflection in film process of changes of sociocultural image of the country will allow to find details and focal points of film process of the 1920th. It is necessary to refer a conclusion about gradual strengthening of mythemes in the Soviet cinema, "rooting" in movie space of not poeticized reality, and the mythological scheme of functioning of socialist society to scientific results of research.
Aesthetics and theory of art
Subbotskiy E. - René Magritte's Magic Crystal pp. 86-124

DOI:
10.7256/2306-1618.2014.3.12113

Abstract: In article the analysis of works of the Belgian artist surrealist René Magritte from the point of view of researches of an origin of art in a paleoanthropology and magic thinking in psychology is given. These researches show that at sources of art the belief of the ancient person that near the usual, terrestrial world there is a magic, supernatural world in which souls of people and animals live lies. For communication with this supernatural world of people creates special means – drawings, a sculpture, architecture, abstract signs and symbols. During long historical process, the belief in the magic world gives way to official religion, and at many modern people – belief in science. The feeling of the magic turns into feeling esthetic, and means of communication with the supernatural – into the modern art. However researches of magic thinking in psychology showed that the modern city inhabitant has a belief in the magic didn't disappear, and left on the level of the unconscious. Though our consciousness can deny the fact existence supernatural, our unconscious "believes" that outside the familiar world of science the world of the supernatural is covered. In this invisible world not laws of the nature, but laws of magic work. Magritte's cloths force the modern person to feel existence in it of residual belief in existence of the supernatural world denied by modern science. Novelty: For the first time Magritte's painting is considered in the context of modern pilot studies of magic thinking in psychology. Also the communication of works of Magritte with rock painting of a late paleolith analyzed in article is new.Conclusions: (1) Magritte's cloths are quintessence of the historical memory of art which is taking away us on tens tysyacheleniye in the past to art of a late paleolith. These cloths are turned to subconscious belief of the modern person in the supernatural; (2) The belief hidden deeply in unconscious in supernatural, resounding with Magritte's cloths, generates in the modern viewer of feeling of a riddle and alarm, and also feeling "already seen", forcing it to recognize emotionally the belief in existence of supernatural reality denied by rational thinking.
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