Статья 'Метафорический язык в священных текстах' - журнал 'Человек и культура' - NotaBene.ru
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Man and Culture

Metaphorical Language in Sacral Texts

Arapov Aleksandr Vladilenovich

Doctor of Philosophy

associate professor of the Department of Ontology and the Theory of Knowledge at Voronezh State University

394006, Russia, Voronezh, Universitetskaya ploschad 1

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The subject matter of the reserach is the metaphorical language in sacred texts. The term "metaphor" has an old story. Aristotle defined a metaphor as a figure of speech similar to comparison but in which there are no sheaves "as", "is similar" comparisons expressing an essence. The metaphor, unlike allegory, isn't intended for bit-by-bit interpretation, it can be understood only as whole. It has no the unambiguous key, allowing to receive the unique parallel deciphered text entirely expressing sense of a metaphor. The metaphor stores in itself diverse potentialities of the meanings which are staticizing in the course of her perception and interpretation. In work the social and philosophical analysis, the comparative analysis, the psychological analysis, and also general scientific methods are used. The comparative analysis allowed to define the general and special in structure and contents of sacral texts. Thanks to its application the main types of metaphors and the symbols which are universal for sacral texts of various traditions were revealed, and also to define specifics of their realization in various texts. Possibility of use of metaphors for the description Sacral, is based on analogy between Sacred and wordly, God and the person. The metaphor leans on known of empirical experience, just as a metaphysical discourse – on known of a rational reasoning. The metaphor and metaphysics recognizes that the relations of God and the person, God and the world can be described in terms taken of human life. Such opportunity, first, relies on analogy between the Creator and his creation which in medieval philosophy was called as "Analogia entis" - "analogy of life". If the person is an image and similarity of God, means and God can be considered in a certain degree just like the person. Secondly, possibility of a metaphor is based on possibility of dialogue between the person and God, carried out by means of a prayer and reading the Scriptus. If good luck it is possible to carry on dialogue, so it at least in a certain aspect is the personality. For the avraamicheskikh of religions the lichnostnost of God is self-evident. But even in an advayta-vedant the Brahman acts not only as the impersonal absolute, but also as personal God (Ishvara). And in those religions where it isn't supposed existence of uniform personal God, dialogue between the person and separate deities is possible. The known anthropomorphism of metaphors shouldn't confuse us. Actions of God understood as "You" or "personal God", are understood also as acts of man, comprehended through paradigms of human activity. For the religious person these paradigms are set by actions of God and other protagonists belonging to the transcendental world. For critically adjusted thinker opposite, the description of actions of the Deity is transfer to the transcendental sphere of the human relations. Anyway allocation of such paradigms of interpersonal interaction by means of which is lawful the relations of God and the world are described. We don't apply for the solution of metaphysical questions and we are limited only to the statement about correlation existence between paradigms of human activity and the human relations on the one hand and the description of actions of divine persons of sacral texts and their relations with people on the other hand. 

Keywords: sacral texts, Old Testament, New Testament, Shaktism, Biblical Studies, Upanishads, metaphor, interpretation, hermeneutics, allegory
This article written in Russian. You can find full text of article in Russian here .

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