International Law
Journal Menu
> Issues > Rubrics > About journal > Authors > About the Journal > Requirements for publication > Editorial collegium > Peer-review process > Policy of publication. Aims & Scope. > Article retraction > Ethics > Online First Pre-Publication > Copyright & Licensing Policy > Digital archiving policy > Open Access Policy > Article Processing Charge > Article Identification Policy > Plagiarism check policy
Journals in science databases
About the Journal

MAIN PAGE > Back to contents
Publications of Shinkaretskaya Galina Georgievna
International Law and International Organizations, 2023-1
Shinkaretskaya G.G. - Digital Evidence in the Process of the International Court of Justice pp. 55-66


Abstract: The experience of the International Court of Justice of the United Nations, the oldest existing international court, is extremely important for the development of international judicial procedure. One of the important elements is the practice of collecting and using evidence, which serve as the basis for a Court decision. The problem of recent years has been the problem of using digital (electronic) evidence, which can be any material that exists or is transmitted in the form of numbers. Its source can be a computer disk, stationary or mobile, USB drive, smartphone, the Internet. The digital proof may also have a graphical form in the form of a computer file or an email. The source of evidence may also be data obtained from satellites as a result of remote sensing of the Earth. There are no rules of customary international law concerning electronic evidence. It is logical to assume that the relevant regulation is adopted by each international court separately for itself in the form of its internal law or accepted practice. There are no rules in the Statute and Rules of the International Court of Justice that directly regulate the handling of digital evidence. The main task that the Court faces is to select such data that would allow it to make an effective and fair decision in accordance with international law. Since digital information can be on the Internet, and therefore be accessible to everyone, such information can be classified as publicly available, and therefore freely available. There are concerns that its use could make the trial uncertain. In our opinion, for digital data, the same conditions of treatment must be observed as with evidence in another form: deadlines, registration of copies, etc. The final word on the suitability of the submitted digital evidence is taken by the Court, taking into account the clarity of the image and information, the reliability of sources, etc.
Law and Politics, 2022-4
Shinkaretskaya G.G. - Obtaining and evaluating evidence at the International Criminal Court pp. 43-54


Abstract: The article refers to the prominent role of the International Criminal Court as an organ of international justice. The author emphasizes the defining role of the Statute of the International Criminal Court as a document in which the legal foundations of activity are formulated and the basic procedural rules that guide the Court in its practice are developed. The importance of the Regulations in the implementation of procedural actions, which are reduced to a detailed and in-depth proof of certain facts submitted to the court, is shown. The methodological basis of the study is a normative, comprehensive, systematic approach to the analysis of the rule of law established by the constituent documents of the International Criminal Court. It is indicated that the constituent documents of the international judicial institution provide, among other things, detailed regulation of the presentation and evaluation of evidence. The author pays special attention to the fact that the provision and evaluation of evidence in the International Criminal Court should be organized in such a way as to provide an opportunity to render a judicial verdict impartially and taking into account all information on the legal grounds under consideration. The article examines certain procedural norms of the Rome Statute and the Rules of the International Criminal Court. The significant role of the Rules of Procedure and Evidence, which are a key tool for the application of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, is shown.
International Law, 2022-1
Shinkaretskaya G.G., Berman A.M. - Cyber-attacks Ц an unlawful use of digital technologies pp. 40-50


Abstract: This article notes that cyber-attacks, i.e. disruption of the information systems of persons, companies or countries, are a new type of criminal activity. International law does not yet have does not have normative documents that regulate the procedure of countering cyber-attacks. It is complicated by the fact that in the international law the grounds for taking coercive measures against other country is aggression (armed attack), which confers the right to individual or collective self-defense of the country. It is indicated that the doctrine legitimizes drawing parallels between common operation that are classified as the resorting to force, and the corresponding cyber operations. As the criterion of aggression, it is offered to use the assessment of the scale of attack and severity of consequences. The difficulty in qualifying the cyber-attack also lies in open architecture of the Internet, which allows billions of users worldwide to interact with each other. The aforementioned aspect also allows the hackers to hide their identity or even use someone else's device without their knowledge. All these difficulties aggravate if cyber operations are conducted by or on behalf of the countries. In fact, the cyber-attack participants do not bear any consequences for their actions. It is claimed that modern international law suggests both, intraterritorial or extraterritorial jurisdiction.
International Law and International Organizations, 2022-1
Shinkaretskaya G.G. - Evidence in the procedure of the International Court of Justice: conceptual aspects pp. 11-23


Abstract: This article notes that the grounded decision of any international court depends on the selection and evaluation of evidence and proof of witness, since the International Court of Justice delivers its judgment binding on sovereign states involved in the dispute. Unlike the national courts that strictly regulate the procedure for selection and evaluation of evidence by normative legal documents, the international courts have more freedom in this respect. From such perspective, considerable interest draws the International Court of Justice, which serves as a model for the establishment and operation of all other international judicial institutions. The author observes that the question of evidence gains particular importance due to the need for taking into account a vast array of natural scientific, economic and social data in the international disputes. In the selection of facts or other evidence pertaining to the case, emphasis is placed on correlation between the authority of the International Court of Justice and the countries involved in the dispute. The court, using its discretion, delivers a judgment for its own benefit. It is worth noting that although in recent years the Court focuses rather on the data analysis for convincing parties, the countries are inclined to accept it. With regards to the question of admissibility of the data, this is virtually an exclusive competence of the International Court of Justice.
International Law and International Organizations, 2019-4
Shinkaretskaya G.G. - Public international law and private international law in the practice of international courts pp. 78-88


Abstract: Public international law and private international law represent two different legal systems. Their interrelation is traced in the practice of two reputable international courts – the Permanent Court of International Justice and the International Court of Justice. The author highlights the four most distinct cases of reference of international courts to the private international law: when there is a lacunae in the public international law, which may be filled through reference to the private international law; when the parties request the Court to fall back upon interpretation of the agreement on private international law prior to resolving the issue of public international law; when the public-legal principles and responsibilities of the parties derive directly from the domestic legislative acts regulating the private-legal questions; when the Court is asked to establish whether or not the execution of national legislation violates the norms of public international law.
International Law and International Organizations, 2019-1
Shinkaretskaya G.G. - Legal issues of environmental protection of the Caspian Sea pp. 10-19


Abstract: The author examines the aspects of environmental component of legal regulation of the Caspian Sea, the largest landlocked body of water on Earth. The cooperation of littoral states with regards to its environmental protection is complicated by the fact that after the dissemination of USSR, instead of two countries – Iran and Soviet Union, there have formed five countries interested in hydrocarbon extraction from the bottom of Caspian Sea, which caused acute contradictions between them. In light of this reason, the validity of Tehran Framework Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Caspian Sea in encumbered. The signed in 2018 Convention on the Status of Caspian Sea, overall, follows the regulations of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 1982. The author notes that the planned adoption of the obligatory document on environmental protection and sustainable use of maritime biodiversity (as an addendum to the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea) can become a positive addition to the legal system existing in the Caspian Sea. The need is claimed for the expansion of further productive cooperation of the states, which interests in one or another way are affected by this problem.
Other our sites:
Official Website of NOTA BENE / Aurora Group s.r.o.