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Publications of Rusakov Sergei Sergeevich
Philosophical Thought, 2021-5
Rusakov S.S. - The concept of subject and subjectivation in the philosophy of Spinoza: interpretation of G. Deleuze pp. 62-71


Abstract: This article explores the concept of subject in the works of Baruch Spinoza. The peculiarity of this research lies in the juxtaposition of the Cartesian concept of subject and the concept of subjectivation, which was developed in M. Foucault’s works of later period The goal is to disclose the specificity of the concept of subject in the works of Spinoza, formulate the key definitions used for revealing this topic, and to conduct a comparative analysis with the concept of subject of R. Descartes. The author examines such aspects of Spinozism as the interrelation between the higher subject and the mode of being, the concept of individuality and affects in interpretation of G. Deleuze, etc. The novelty of this research consists in providing a comprehensive analysis of some provisions of Spinoza's doctrine concerning the basic aspects of the concept of subject, as well as in determination of the crucial elements of the concept of subjectivation. The author concludes that Spinozism has shifted significantly from the Cartesian tradition. The first difference from Descartes lies in the ontological attitude of the Dutch philosopher, according to which a human can be viewed as a subject, not as a substance, but as a mode only. The second difference lies in introduction of the principle of dynamism, according to which the individual mode can have greater or lesser perfection, which could not comply with the permanence of Cartesian cogito.
Philosophy and Culture, 2021-4
Rusakov S.S. - The Concept of subject in the philosophy of E. Husserl pp. 35-44


Abstract: This article analyzes the elements of the concept of  subject traced in the philosophy of Edmund Husserl throughout all his works. The author follows the transformation of the views of German philosopher on the idea of subject. As well as their implementation in the context of phenomenological thought. Special attention is given to correlation between the works of Husserl of the early period and the later period.  It is noted that unlike the Cartesian or Kantian model of subjectivity, the egological subject for the first time conceptualizes intersubjectivity as the foundation for the development of the fundamentally new concept of understanding a human as a subject endowed with self-consciousness. The main conclusions consist in the following theses: despite the fact that the key role in the egological concept of subject belongs to the definition of evidence, intentionality, and reduction, the problem of cognition, considered in this article, is developed by Husserl as further complication of the Kantian approach; the egological concept of subject implements the concept of intersubjectivity, which demarcates the ideas of E. Husserl among other approaches towards the concept of subject. understanding the subject. On the one hand, intersubjectivity weakens the position of the idea of absolute autonomy of the subject’ while on the other hand, it is the new mechanism for legitimizing the subjective process of cognition and the truth itself, due to recognition of ego behind the figure of the Other.
Philosophical Thought, 2021-3
Rusakov S.S. - I. Kant's Copernican revolution in the context of the concept of subjectivation pp. 42-50


Abstract: This article is dedicated to correlation between the concept of subjectivation of M. Foucault and the concept of subject of I. Kant. Due to the fact that the project of studying the forms of subjectivity has not been accomplished, the artistic legacy of the French scholar has left numerous questions still to be answered. One of such questions is the transformation of the subject that took place in Modern Age, and the reasons for the elimination of spiritual practices of subjectivation. The work is of historical-philosophical nature, and employs analytical, critical and comparative methods of research applicable to the texts of Michel Foucault and Immanuel Kant, as well as to a number of foreign (G. Deleuze, A. Renaut, T. Adorno) and domestic (M. Mamardashvili, F. Girenok, S. Khoruzhiy) analytical works. The novelty of this research consists in the analysis of the philosophical concept of M. Foucault in the specific context of transcendental philosophy of I. Kant. The author distinguishes between what the French researcher called the metaphysical subject of Descartes and the transcendental subject of Kant. The following conclusions were formulated: the acknowledgement of irrevocable loss of the elements of subjectivation in the Kantian concept of subject, which were reflected in the doctrine of Cartesius; claim of the autonomy of the Kantian subject, founded on the rejection of metaphysics and exclusion of heteronomy as a characteristic of subjectivity; confirmation of the key role of practical reason as the factor of further development of the concept of subject towards enhancing the autonomy and gnoseocentrism.
Philosophy and Culture, 2020-10
Rusakov S.S. - Model of subjectivation in the philosophy of Pythagoreans pp. 50-57


Abstract: This article presents the analysis of the philosophy of Pythagoreans, dedicated to the search and conceptualization of the ideas of subjectivation. The goal of this research is to provide general characteristics to Pythagorean model of subjectivation, which was only partially described by M. Foucault in the writings on Ancient Greek “care of self’. The work employs the translated sources, in form of separate fragments of the compositions written by Pythagoreans, as well as a number of analytical works of Russian and foreign scholars. Considering the narrowness of available materials, the author does not intent to provide a comprehensive overview of the ideas of Pythagorean School, but emphasizes their special stance on subjectivity and personal becoming through a combination of spiritual practices. The scientific novelty consists in the attempt to describe the general ideas of Pythagoreans in the field of ethics, as well as formulate the Pythagorean model of subjectivation to fill the existing gams in M, Foucault’s works of later period. The following conclusions are formulated: it was established that not only ethical, but also political saturation of the history of Pythagoreanism is on par with the Socratian-Platonic model, characterized by Foucault as politically oriented (for example, thanks to analysis of “Alcibiades”); the four key techniques of self-care were derived and systematized; it was demonstrated that unlike Stoicism, Neo-Pythagoreanism did not adapt its doctrine in the field of ethics, and thus, did not receive due reflection in Hellenistic period of development of the “culture of self”.
Philosophical Thought, 2020-2
Rusakov S.S. - Ideas of F. Nietzsche in the context of the concept of subjectivation pp. 65-72


Abstract: The subject of this research is the link between the concept of human in the works of F. Nietzsche and the concept of subjectivation proposed by M. Foucault. The author meticulously describes the problem of seeking the element of the concept of subjectivation in writings of the German philosopher, and demonstrates why F. Nietzsche should be referred to as one of the main critics and reformers of classical concept of a subject. Special attention is paid to correlation of the early and late works of the German critic, which intertextuality leads to understanding of the wholeness of Nietzsche’s doctrine and consistency of his views upon the problem of a human. It is underlined that some of his works feature the practices of self, similar to the classical and Christian culture of self-nurturing. The article applies critical, comparative and intertextual method of analysis of the works of F. Nietzsche and some of his interpreters. The main conclusion lies in establishment of the link between the criticism of Platonism, Christianity and gnoseology of Modern Age through determination of strict sense of human as a subject and his connection with the world reflected in the works of Friedrich Nietzsche. Despite his disagreement with multiple classical and Christian philosophers, he acknowledges some ethical and individual practices proposed by them within the framework of the concept of subjectivation.
Philosophy and Culture, 2019-10
Rusakov S.S. - Christian model of subjectification in the works of M. Foucault pp. 58-65


Abstract: The subject of this article is the problem of identification of the nature and peculiarities of the Christian model of subjectification, which received its first theoretical substantiation in the late writings of M. Foucault. The fundamental problems of the sources and methods characteristic to Foucault’s research in this field are described. The main principled and historical context of subjectification processes of the era of Early Christianity are revealed. Christian model fits into the context of M. Foucault’s reasoning on the possibility to complement the theory of subject with the theory of subjectification. In the course of this work, the author using the analytical, critical and comparative methods applying them to a number of the writings of M. Foucault and some other ancient philosophers. The scientific novelty consists in the fact that it is the first review in the Russian literature dedicated to the Christian model of subjectification based on the analysis of the previously untranslated writings of M. Foucault The author provides a systematic and detailed description of the modes and practices of subjectification common to the Early Christianity period. Leaning on the materials of M. Foucault and introduced by him methods and criteria, the structure of this subjectification model is suggested.
Philosophical Thought, 2019-1
Rusakov S.S. - Conceptual-categorical apparatus in social philosophy of M. K. Mamardashvili pp. 44-49


Abstract: This article is dedicated to the problem of examination and systematization of the separate concepts, notions and categories featured in social philosophy of M. K. Mamardashvili. The author focuses on structuring the analysis of Mamardashvili’s philosophy on the three levels that reflect different topics in his philosophizing: the first level allocates the notions related to the original interpretation of the various social institutions (artefacts); the second level – the categories associated with the types of social cultures or types of society lining up according to the configuration of element from the first level; the third level considers several concepts about the emergence of certain type of people that are the products of various types of society. In the course of this research, the author leans on method of modelling alongside analytical, critical and comparative analysis. The scientific novelty consists in determination of not only the systematics representation on the fundamental categories of M. K. Mamardashvili that can be applied in socio-philosophical analysis of any modern society, but also in revelation of peculiarities of his ideas pertinent to society. Based on the three-level system of the philosopher’s categorical apparatus, the author underlines that his ideas broadly resemble the phenomenological analysis of society, but much more original, without any borrowings from the social philosophy of Husserl or Heidegger.
Sociodynamics, 2019-1
Rusakov S.S. - Sociologist and the state. To the problem of studying the state in the conditions of symbolic power pp. 138-145


Abstract: This article analyzes the problem associated with objectivity and capability of the modern humanitarian thought to reveal the theoretical aspects of the state. Leaning on the ideas of multiple philosophers, the author demonstrates that the existing conventional research methods in various social disciplines constantly remain under the powerful influence of the state as the institution that possesses the meta-capital. Besides the concept of symbolic power developed by Pierre Bourdieu, there is a number of other ideas that have previously substantiated the impossibility or extremely high probability of the fact that any research, which attempted to give meticulous explanation of impact of the state upon human and limits of state’s authoritative powers, are doomed to failure. For analyzing the works of Pierre Bourdieu, Michel Foucault, Theodor Adorno and other thinkers related to the topic under discussion, the article uses the methods accepted in sociology of knowledge and social philosophy: contrastive-comparative, hypothetical-deductive, and critical methods. The scientific novelty lies in the author’s attempt to not only emphasize the strong facets of certain methods of studying the stat that claim the possibility of balancing the “effects of the power” or influence of the state, but also to indicate that the application of such inventive methods dos not allow the researchers to fill their works with the sufficient analytical and forecasting power, as the actions of the state constantly outpace the actions of the humanitarian scholars.
Politics and Society, 2018-10
Rusakov S.S. - Comparative analysis of the concept of power in the philosophy of Alexandre Kojève and Carl Schmitt pp. 18-25


Abstract: The subject of this research is the problem of correlation between the concept and types of power in the works of two thinkers – Alexandre Kojève and Carl Schmitt. The  methodological discrepancy in the works of these political theoreticians is revealed. The author suggests not only the formulated by the philosophers list of the types of power, but also finds the intersecting points in their representations on power for the purpose of unification of their approaches and acquiring certain synthetic typology of power. Special attention is given to the historical and contemporary examples that demonstrate the difference in understanding the various types of governing. The scientific novelty is defined by the fact that this article is first to provide a comprehensive comparative analysis of the two thinkers who differ in their methodological component. Comparing the four types of power, the author also suggests a certain synthetic theoretical construct, within the framework of which the pure types of power of A. Kojève are supported by representations on the basic styles of government administration by C. Schmitt.
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