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Publications of Shapiro Bella
Genesis: Historical research, 2019-5
Shapiro B. - Russian cavalry after the Crimean War: main scenarios of development pp. 27-36


Abstract: The defeat in the Crimean War started one of the most controversial periods in the history of Russian cavalry.  Much of what became an inseparable part of military science by 1850’s, in the second part of the XIX century forced to raise a question about the role of cavalry in the theatre of war. Therefore, the goal of this research lies in the analysis of the dynamics of development of Russian cavalry during the reign of Alexander II, initiated by the defeat in Crimean War and subsequent reforms. The author attempt to restore the history of evolution of the Russian cavalry over the period from 1855 to 1881, as well as determine the landmark changes and their consequences. The focus is made on the three different development phases: after the end of the Crimean War; in the 1860’s; and in the 1870’s. The archival materials that allow tracing the roots of the crisis of Russia cavalry in the 1850’s, as well as the dynamic of overcoming the crisis during the reign of Alexander II (1855-1881), are introduced into the scientific discourse. The acquired results lead to the conclusion that in a quarter of century, Russian cavalry has significantly improved its situation. A benchmark for its future development becomes the Cossack Cavalry; the key development vectors – narrowly specialized training, including the strengthening of material and scientific base, advancement of military hippology, military equestrianism, and sport horse breeding.
Man and Culture, 2019-1
Shapiro B. - Russian cavalry in the age of Frederick the Great: cultural conflict or a cultural dialogue? pp. 41-56


Abstract: The development of cavalry art of the XVIII century closely relates to the achievements of the Prussian military system. The subject of this research is the dynamics of development of the Russian cavalry that took place under the influence of ideology of Frederick the Great – inventor of the most powerful European cavalry of the middle and the end of the XVIII century. Russia was significantly influence by his ideas as well, but it depended on the attitude of a ruling monarch towards the Prussian militarism. The sources for this study became the military-administrative and military-charter documents of the XVIII century. Methodological foundation is the comparative-historical method. Variable comparisons allowed determining and analyzing the common and the peculiar in organization of cavalry in Prussia and Russia at different stages; its organization is attributed with the phase of eventful history. The conducted analysis demonstrates the positive and negative sides that emerged in Russian cavalry as a result of Prussian influence. Thea author concludes that it is hard to overestimate the importance acquired by the reception achievements of Frederick the Great in Russia – it determined the foundation for the development of the national cavalry art in the next half of the century.
Genesis: Historical research, 2018-12
Shapiro B. - Nikolai Nikolaevich Romanov Senior: cavalryman, horse breeder, collector (based on the documents from the State Archive of the Russian Federation) pp. 152-167


Abstract: This article depicts the general field marshal, general cavalry inspector general Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevich Senior as a horse breeder and collector of hippology materials. The goal of this work is to reveal the importance of N. N. Romanov’s pursuits for the history of Russian cavalry. The author attempts to restore the history of life and activity of the Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevich Senior, and describe the pattern of its development. The personal biographical, property and record keeping materials of N. N. Romanov from the State Archive of the Russian Federation became the source for this research. The use of historical-biographical and chronological-problematic approaches allowed describing the life story, as well as highlighting the landmarks and patterns of development of certain events. The attention is focused on the results of activity of Grand Duke in the context of their significance for the advancement and improvement of the Russian cavalry. The acquired data complements the already known history of life and work of Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevich Senior, as well as the everyday life of the Russian imperial house of the late XIX century and Russian military history.
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