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Publications of Shapiro Bella
Genesis: Historical research, 2019-5
Shapiro B. - Russian cavalry after the Crimean War: main scenarios of development pp. 27-36


Abstract: The defeat in the Crimean War started one of the most controversial periods in the history of Russian cavalry.  Much of what became an inseparable part of military science by 1850’s, in the second part of the XIX century forced to raise a question about the role of cavalry in the theatre of war. Therefore, the goal of this research lies in the analysis of the dynamics of development of Russian cavalry during the reign of Alexander II, initiated by the defeat in Crimean War and subsequent reforms. The author attempt to restore the history of evolution of the Russian cavalry over the period from 1855 to 1881, as well as determine the landmark changes and their consequences. The focus is made on the three different development phases: after the end of the Crimean War; in the 1860’s; and in the 1870’s. The archival materials that allow tracing the roots of the crisis of Russia cavalry in the 1850’s, as well as the dynamic of overcoming the crisis during the reign of Alexander II (1855-1881), are introduced into the scientific discourse. The acquired results lead to the conclusion that in a quarter of century, Russian cavalry has significantly improved its situation. A benchmark for its future development becomes the Cossack Cavalry; the key development vectors – narrowly specialized training, including the strengthening of material and scientific base, advancement of military hippology, military equestrianism, and sport horse breeding.
Man and Culture, 2019-5
Shapiro B. - Russian cavalry at the turn of centuries: Belle Époque or Fin de Siècle? pp. 82-93


Abstract: The turn of the XIX and XX centuries is one of the most controversial periods in the history of Russian cavalry, since its development was affected by the two conterminous cultures: Belle Époque reflecting the idea of revival, and Fin de Siècle naturally associated with the decadent moods of cultural crisis. The conflict of two antithetical trends marked several vectors of development, which have severely aggravated by the end of the XX century. The so-called accelerator for the development became the loss in the Russo-Japanese War, which escalated the pessimistic moods. Research methodology is based on the historical-systemic method, used for covering the topic as a combination of interrelated events, occurrences and objects that form a specific form of the Russian military culture. Method of periodization is applied for indicating the stages of historical evolution of this form of culture. The work is structured in accordance with the problematic-chronological principle of discussion. The materials are introduced into the scientific discourse that allow tracing the historical development of the Russian cavalry at the turn of the XIX and XX centuries, as well as declare it as a cultural form, subjected to the same conflict of the turn of centuries as the other “peaceful” forms of culture. The research results allow considering the history of development of the Russian cavalry in the context of cultural crisis not only as a part of the Russian military history, but also as a part of cultural history of the country.
Genesis: Historical research, 2018-12
Shapiro B. - Nikolai Nikolaevich Romanov Senior: cavalryman, horse breeder, collector (based on the documents from the State Archive of the Russian Federation) pp. 152-167


Abstract: This article depicts the general field marshal, general cavalry inspector general Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevich Senior as a horse breeder and collector of hippology materials. The goal of this work is to reveal the importance of N. N. Romanov’s pursuits for the history of Russian cavalry. The author attempts to restore the history of life and activity of the Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevich Senior, and describe the pattern of its development. The personal biographical, property and record keeping materials of N. N. Romanov from the State Archive of the Russian Federation became the source for this research. The use of historical-biographical and chronological-problematic approaches allowed describing the life story, as well as highlighting the landmarks and patterns of development of certain events. The attention is focused on the results of activity of Grand Duke in the context of their significance for the advancement and improvement of the Russian cavalry. The acquired data complements the already known history of life and work of Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevich Senior, as well as the everyday life of the Russian imperial house of the late XIX century and Russian military history.
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