Philosophical Thought
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Publications of Surovyagin Dmitriy Pavlovich
Philosophy and Culture, 2019-2
Surovyagin D.P. - To the problem of reduction of normative statements pp. 38-44


Abstract: This article explores the problem of the reduction of normative statements to descriptive statements. The starting point for discourse became the philosophical thesis “is–ought problem” (known as Hume’s guillotine) that speaks of the logical incompatibility of the statements on facts statements on values and norms. There have been determined three approaches towards solution of the question on norms reduction: semantic-ontological, emotive, and naturalistic. Each of the approaches has its merits and demerits. The semantic-ontological approach allows structuring and substantiating any deontic system, but does not suggest the selection criterion between these systems. The emotive approach denies the presence of logical meaning in normative statements and rejects the possibility of their reduction to the descriptive statements. However, the merit of such approach consists in the precise designation of the criteria of validity and falsity of statements. The naturalistic approach attempts to substantiate the normative statements using factual evidence on the animal behavior and theory of evolution, but faces the philosophical objections against physicalism and behaviorism. The scientific novelty lies in comparison of the aforementioned approaches and determination of their principal merits and demerits.
Philosophical Thought, 2018-7
Surovyagin D.P. - The problem foundations of mathematics as a philosophical puzzle pp. 30-41


Abstract:  The subject of this research is the problem of foundations of mathematics in works of the representatives of logical empiricism and Wittgenstein. It is demonstrated that their solutions were original and significantly differed from the logicistic solution. If logicism suggests accepting this problem as a fact and develops the technical means for its circumvention, the logical empiricism tries to eliminate it as a pseudo-problem (and Wittgenstein as a philosophical puzzle) that occurred as a result of the intricacy of the language. Analyzing the problem of impredicative definition of mathematical concepts, the non-positivists and Wittgenstein acted in their usual role of analytical philosophers who clarify the meaning of the propositions of science. Textological analysis of the works of B. Russell, F. Ramsey, R. Carnap, P. Kaufman and L. Wittgenstein illustrates that neo-positivists and Wittgenstein grounded the solution of the problem of foundations of mathematics on the attempt of rectification of mathematical concepts (such as multiplicity, function, and definition), as well as initiating of mathematical and natural scientific discourses. Their approach is a vivid example of the analytical philosophy of science, if the philosophy of science is viewed as systematic comprehension of a certain scientific problem. The scientific novelty lies in identification of the elements of constructivism and finitism in the philosophy of mathematics of the aforementioned representatives of analytical philosophy. The author draws an original comparison between the positions of logicism, neo-positivism and Wittgenstein regarding the question of logical admissibility of the impredicative formation of concepts. Because the criticism of neo-positivists and Wittgenstein was aimed against the inaccurate application of the concepts, it is valuable in itself as a model of thought, despite the fact that at the time it did not lead to the revolutionary changes in mathematics.  
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