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Publications of Gashkov Sergei Aleksandrovich
Philosophical Thought, 2021-2
Gashkov S.A. - The problem of historical-philosophical classification and methodological questions of studying the French post-structuralism pp. 24-32


Abstract: The subject of this research is conditions for the creation of nontrivial classifications for the historical-philosophical analysis of the phenomenon of French “post-structuralism”. The author believes that the term “post-structuralism” is a historical-philosophical abstraction insofar that the researchers do not take into consideration a specificity of the thought of French philosophers in the space between modernism and classicism. The article also examines the instances when the “post-structuralists” (Foucault, Castoriadis) address the problem of classification and systematization of philosophical knowledge based on the attempt to classify sciences that has been carried out in French rationalism by Goblot and Meyerson. The research employs the historical-philosophical methods for rationalizing the project of “nontrivial” philosophical classification as a uniform intellectual process, although it is yet to be discerned and finalized. The novelty of this work consists in the fact that the author not only applied the methods of nontrivial classification developed in cognitive linguistics (Lakoff) and theoretical biology (Meien) to the historical-philosophical process, but made an attempt to demonstrate that the development of such heuristic methods is possible within the framework of the history of philosophy as a discipline. The author examined the “archaeological” analytics of biology of Foucault and the concept of social time in of Castoriadis.
Philosophical Thought, 2020-3
Gashkov S.A. - Subject and history: reasoning of Castoriadis on modernity in the context of this philosophical polemics (Heidegger, Ricoeur, Habermas) pp. 1-9


Abstract: The subject of this research is the historical-philosophical and polemical context of philosophical reasoning on the history of French philosopher of Greek descent Cornelius Castoriadis (1922-1997). The philosopher builds a complicated polemical model that vividly responses to all attempts to determines society, being, history, and a human. Even such prominent philosophers of the XX century, such as M. Heidegger, J. Habermas. And P. Ricoeur, who do not show prejudice attitude towards philosophical knowledge, become subjected to critical analysis. The scientific novelty consists in attracting the new to the Russian audience historical-philosophical material, as well as a distinct attempt to reproduce of such polemics and debated that took place within the French intellectual environment of the late XX century. However, the author did not pursue the task of historical and biobibliographical description; the emphasis was made on the so-called return to the origins of the philosophy of history, revival of philosophical reasoning on history based on the examined material, demonstration of the complicated, aporetic, heterogeneous and heuristic nature of relationship between philosophy, humanities and social disciplines. The conclusion is made that the work of Castoriadis mostly represents philosophical criticism of theoretical grounds of humanities and social disciplines, rather than a poststructuralist philosophy of history; but this criticism, studied in the context of philosophical thought, acquires an independent scientific meaning.
SENTENTIA. European Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 2020-2
Gashkov S.A. - Subject and history: Castoriadis reasoning on modernity in the context of his philosophical polemics (Heidegger, Ricoeur, Habermas) pp. 1-8


Abstract: The subject of this research is the historical-philosophical and polemical context of the reasoning on history of the French philosopher of Greek descent Cornelius Castoriadis (1922-1997). The philosopher structures a complex polemical model that sharply responses to all attempts to determine society, being, history, and human. Even the recognized philosophical figures of the XX century, such as M. Heidegger, P. Ricoeur, J. Haberma, who have no biased attitude on philosophical knowledge, appear to be subject to critical analysis.  The author applied intertextual, hermeneutic and dialogical methods leaning on the texts of the aforementioned authors, as well as the data of modern critical literature. The scientific novelty consists in attraction of the relatively unknown to the Russian audience historical-philosophical material, and an attempt to reproduce the polemics and debates that were held in French intellectual environment of the late XX century. At the same time, the author did not follow the goals of historical and biobibliographical description, but rather return to the origins of the philosophy and history and revival of philosophical reasoning on history based on the researched material, demonstration of complicated, aporetic, heterogeneous and heuristic nature of the relation between philosophy, social disciplines and humanities. The author concludes that we cannot speak of the poststructuralist philosophy of history; the work of Castoriadis mostly represents philosophical criticism of theoretical grounds of social disciplines and humanities, although in the context of philosophical thought, it acquires an independent scientific meaning. The author ubderlines that Castoriadis polemicized Heidegger's thought, especially in regard of Ancient Greek civilization; the limits of Castoriadis' thought, such as radical atheism, social monadism, refusal to think communication; the advantages of Castoriadis' thought of history, his multiculturalism, his claim to restore genuine philosophy and democracy, criticism of determinism, scientism, cultural egoism.
Philosophical Thought, 2019-4
Gashkov S.A., Rubtova M.V. - Apology of ineffective subject: In the footsteps of M. Foucault pp. 11-23


Abstract: This article is dedicated to fundamentals of the social criticism of the prominent French philosopher Michel Foucault(1924-1986). The author begins with the “duality” of non-European subject, which on one hand, manifests as the carrier of the “relation to truth” appearing in “techniques” and “technologies” of itself; while on the other hand, represents a subject of spiritual self-analysis and “care of itself”. The author believes that such duality justifies the evolution of Foucauldian interpretation of power: from disciplinary concept of power, Foucault shifts towards the concept of “biopower”, outlining the field of the future social criticism. But does the subject, in Foucault’s opinion, becomes “ineffective” as a subject of social action? This work carries mostly a historical-philosophical character, leaning on the comparison of Foucault’s texts of various periods, as well as some of his successors (Laval, Budet, Balibar), and scholars (Bourdain, Metzger, Pizzorno). The author also touches upon the questions of history and theory of sociology. The scientific novelty consists in the attempt of rationalize Foucault’s philosophical thought in a particular context of scientific paradox that introduces a complex dialectical and critical social theory, never created by the author. The subject contains not only the “technology of truth”, but also “spirituality”; the power – not only “disciplinarity”, but also “governmentality”. It is concluded that, according to Foucault, the ineffectiveness of social action at the present day functionally depends on the potential intellectual criticism of the fundamentals of modernity. Refraining from the social action, the “ineffective subject” commits the process of critical conceptualization.
SENTENTIA. European Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 2019-2
Gashkov S.A. - Cornelius Castoriadis reforms the philosophy of history pp. 14-22


Abstract: The subject of this research is the philosophical heritage of the prominent Greek-French philosopher, economist, and psychoanalyst Cornelius Castoriadis (1922-1997). The author gives particular attention to the plots of his works related to the problem of such philosophical interpretation of the historical process, in which context a human does not manifest as an alienated subject, but rather a conscious, creative being. Along the way, the philosopher faces Marxism, Sartre’s existentialism, and structuralism of Lévi-Strauss, subjecting them to critical analysis and defending similar principles, kindred to the Greek democratic traditions. Hi critically repels scientism, naturalism, individualism, Eurocentrism, functionalism, positivism and determinism, which in his opinion, obscure the true content of all three methods. The author explored a number of theses and texts of Castoriadis, in comparison with the texts of some representatives of Marxism (Plekhanov, Lenin), existentialism (Sartre), and structuralism (Lévi-Strauss, Althusser, Foucault). Leaning on the study of the evolution of French postwar thought, the author draws the independent conclusions on Castoriadis’ methodology. The scientific novelty consists in the attempt to portray Castoriadis as a unique reformer of the philosophy of history. The philosopher manifests not only as a consecutive critic of Marxism, existentialism and structuralism, but also as an independent thinker, who revived the dwindling interest towards the philosophy of history. It is underlined that the works of Castoriadis represent a cycle of studies on the philosophy of history; and in the center of the living historical process is collective creativity, the “magma” of social reality and social imaginary.
Sociodynamics, 2018-11
Gashkov S.A., Rusakov S.S. - Conceptual analysis of M. Foucault and K. Marx in the works of E. Balibar pp. 72-79


Abstract: The subject of this research is the impact of Marxism upon the interpretation of the writings of Michel Foucault in the works of Etienne Balibar. The authors believe that the foundation of political philosophy in France is the syncretic and polydisciplinary; it answers the urgent challenges of time in the field on the intellectual-scientific activity. The research area is interdisciplinary by definition, touching on the questions of social philosophy and theory of politics. Reciting the works of M. Foucault through the works of K. Marx manifests as one of the paramount stages of philosophical career of E. Balibar. The scientific novelty is associated with an attempt to receive a more objective perspective to the evolution of social and political philosophy in France as it is common to believe due to the opposition between modernity and postmodernity. Based on the reasoning of E. Balibar, presented in some of his major works, the authors can draw an unambiguous conclusion: the influence of M. Foucault’s ideas upon E. Balibar’s interpretation of the works of K. Marx allowed Balibar to convert many of the issues viewed by the traditional Marxism in terms of the economic-political discourse into the socio-ethical discourse. Such method helped Balibar to feel a living connection between Marx and modernity, doubting the established stamps of Marxism itself, as well as the popular “anti-Marxism”.
Philosophical Thought, 2018-8
Gashkov S.A. - The problem of interpretation of the Ancient Greek civilization. Castoriadis and Mamardashvili: between structuralism and hermeneutics. pp. 8-20


Abstract: Modern philosophers often not only refer to the classical studies, but also are impacted by the philosophers of Classical Antiquity. At the same time, the two strategies are possible: hermeneutic that recognizes the fundamental importance of classical civilization revealed through interpretation of its leading texts, and structural-anthropological that aspires to elucidate the succession of civilization. The subject of this research is examination of the presence of both strategies in comparison of interpretation of the classical (Ancient Greek) civilization in the works of two distinct philosophers of the XX century:  Cornelius Castoriadis (1922-1997) and Merab Mamardashvili (1930-1990). The basis for such comparison serves the attention of the Greek-Frencj and Soviet-Georgian thinkers to the fundamental questions of studying the Ancient Greek civilization: shift from myth to logos, emergence of philosophy and democratic institutions, role of tragedy, religion, and civil valor and laws of self-consciousness and self-determination of the Ancient Greeks. The following conclusions were made: 1) philosophy of the XX century, particularly Castoriadis and Mamardashvili, denies to see in Classical Antiquity a naïve and contemplative stage of European civilization, referring to the ancients as an independent source of social cognition and ontological inquiry; 2) for both thinkers is became impossible to analyze only the rational aspect of classical philosophy, not taking into account the mythology and tragic worldview of the Ancient Greeks, as well as the specificity of their society; 3) examining the phenomenon of “Greek miracle”, Castoriadis focuses on the collective symbolic mechanisms of the emergence of Ancient Greek democratic institutions, while Mamardashvili is interested in the individual symbolism of the Ancient Greek philosophical reasoning. The author underlines that the reconstruction of the Ancient Greek mentality unambiguously contributed to the formation of professional and sociocultural identity of the modern intellectuals.
Philosophical Thought, 2018-4
Gashkov S.A. - Episteme as a path to knowledge. Heuristic potential of the concept of Foucault's episteme for socio-ontological conceptions of language and history. pp. 30-40


Abstract: The subject of this article is the definition of episteme as a concept. The author is not limited by the original interpretation of the French philosopher Michel Foucault (1926-1954) in his works of “archeological” period. The goal is to demonstrate that the definition of episteme manifested in the work “The Order of Things” as basic for structuring of the social ontology that had never been created by the philosopher. Thus, the author considers the definition of episteme as a separate socio-philosophical concept applied in the philosophy of history and philosophy of language. It is underlined that even Foucault himself does not have an unequivocal understanding of the heuristic nature of episteme. The author suggest to view “episteme” not as a post-metaphysical positivity, but a path to cognition of social institutions, language and history in their overall development. Using the methods of historical-philosophical and linguo-philosophical analysis, an attempt is made to penetrate the essence of episteme as a concept that is foremost understood as the bases of the “unwritten” by Foucault ontology of the socio-humanitarian knowledge. Among the main results of research are the following: 1) analysis of evolution of the definition of episteme in Foucault’s works from the standpoint of socio-philosophical heuristics; 2) historical-philosophical determination of specificity of the notion of “episteme” in its epistemological and socio-philosophical meaning; 3) applicability of this notion for the philosophical-historical and socio-philosophical analysis. The article also demonstrated that it would be inappropriate to associate Foucault’s “archeology” exceptionally with the theory of discourses, while putting the “episteme” alongside the attempts to understand the scientific rationality leaning on the data of the history of sciences. A hypothesis is made that episteme can be considered a heuristic concept for the establishment of socio-philosophical ontology.
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