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Publications of Pashkovskaya Irina Grantovna
Trends and management, 2019-1
Pashkovskaya I.G. - Legal results of execution of domestic energy policy of the European Union: new trends in development of energy in the EU member states pp. 1-12

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0730.2019.1.28576

Abstract: The subject of this research is the activity of the European Union in the area of energy security for the EU member states. The object of this research is the execution of domestic energy policy of the EU, which was developed by the EU with its member states between during 2000-2011. Special attention is given to the study of the European Commission reports, which contain the official data of the EU on the state of its energy economic sectors of the EU member states and the work of the European Commission aimed at increasing energy efficiency of the EU economy and reduction of dependency of its member states on imports of energy resources from and through third-party countries. The main conclusion of the conducted research  is that the execution of the domestic energy policy of the EU lead to realistic shifts in the state of energy security  for its member states. The novelty of this research consists in the discovery of three new trends in energy development of the EU member states, which emerged as the result of adhering to the EU energy policy by the European Commission and the EU member states. The author’s contribution to the research of this topic consists in the discovery of the European Union disruption of the negative parallel ties, which existed until very recently; firstly, between the growth of EU economy and the increase in energy consumption, and secondly, between the growth of EU economy and an increase in emission of greenhouse gasses.
Politics and Society, 2018-4
Pashkovskaya I.G. - Framework strategy of the European Energy Union pp. 53-61

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0684.2018.4.26107

Abstract: The subject of this research is the formation by European Commission of the basics EU’s activity in the area of energy. The object of this research is the presented by European Commission in February 2015 Message to the European Parliament, EU Council, and European Economic and Social Committee, Regional Committee and European Investment Bank about the EU Energy Package. The framework strategy for the solid European Energy Union with the promising policy concerning the climate change. Particular attention is given to examination of the five synergistic and interrelated estimations of the activity of European Commission in the context of the European Energy Union. The main conclusion lies in the thesis that the purpose of the European Energy Union lies in satisfaction of the demand for energy products of each consumer of the European Union from the standpoint of choice, volume, quality and affordable price through the establishment of a single domestic energy market. The scientific novelty consists in determination of regulations of the framework strategy of the European Energy Union affecting the interests of Russia, which indicate the need for preparation by the European Commission by May 2018 of model agreement between the EU member-states and the third countries on the energy issues.
Law and Politics, 2018-4
Pashkovskaya I.G. - The development of political legal grounds of the European Energy Union pp. 40-50

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0706.2018.4.26122

Abstract: The subject of this research is the legislation of institutions of the European Union in the area of development of the European Energy Union. The object of this research is the documents of institutions of the European Union: European Commission’s Third Report on the State of the Energy Union; Decision on establishment of the information exchange mechanism regarding the intergovernmental agreements and non-binding documents between the EU member-states and the third countries in the area of energy; and the measure on ensuring security to gas supply to the European Parliament of the Council of the European Union. Special attention is given to examination of the regulation of documents dedicated to the improvement of energy efficiency of the economies and reduction of dependency of the EU member-states on the import of energy products from the third countries. The main conclusion consists in the statement that the European Union continues forming the political legal foundation for the Russia-European Union relations in the area of energy. The scientific novelty lies in examination of regulations regarding the three levels of crisis situations, caused by the disruption of gas supplies to the EU member-states; the first of which is the level of early prevention, second – level of informing, and third – level of emergency situation. The author’s main contribution is the determination of danger to Russia, which can be inflicted by the application of legal norms of the European Union in the area of energy.
Law and Politics, 2018-4
Pashkovskaya I.G. - The development of political legal grounds of the European Energy Union pp. 40-50

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0706.2018.4.43148

Abstract: The subject of this research is the legislation of institutions of the European Union in the area of development of the European Energy Union. The object of this research is the documents of institutions of the European Union: European Commission’s Third Report on the State of the Energy Union; Decision on establishment of the information exchange mechanism regarding the intergovernmental agreements and non-binding documents between the EU member-states and the third countries in the area of energy; and the measure on ensuring security to gas supply to the European Parliament of the Council of the European Union. Special attention is given to examination of the regulation of documents dedicated to the improvement of energy efficiency of the economies and reduction of dependency of the EU member-states on the import of energy products from the third countries. The main conclusion consists in the statement that the European Union continues forming the political legal foundation for the Russia-European Union relations in the area of energy. The scientific novelty lies in examination of regulations regarding the three levels of crisis situations, caused by the disruption of gas supplies to the EU member-states; the first of which is the level of early prevention, second – level of informing, and third – level of emergency situation. The author’s main contribution is the determination of danger to Russia, which can be inflicted by the application of legal norms of the European Union in the area of energy.
International Law and International Organizations, 2017-4
Pashkovskaya I.G. - The norms of primary law as a legal foundation of the activity of European Union in the area of security and defense, including collaboration with NATO pp. 29-36

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0633.2017.4.25054

Abstract: The subject of this research is the norms of the constituent agreements of the European Union, concluded by the EU member-states since 1992. The object is the Article J.4, Declaration of the Western European Union of the Treaty on European Union; Article J.7 of the Treaty of Amsterdam; Declaration on the European Policy and Defense, and Defense of the Treaty of Nice; Articles 28 A 28 E, Article 188 R, Protocol on Permanent Structured Cooperation, established by the Article 28 A of the Treaty of Lisbon. The author examines the institutionalization of the European Defense Agency, which activity is aimed at the creation of financial and technical base for conducting the general security and defense policy of the European Union. Special attention is given to consideration of the legal base of cooperation of the European Union with NATO in the military political sphere. The main conclusion lies in the fact that the norms of primary law of the European Union form the basis of its activity in the area of security and defense. The authors main contribution is that this article represents an integral, unified by the common idea innovation case study, which conclusions carry a great practical importance for establishment of the defense policy of Russia with regards to the EU member-states and EU overall. The scientific novelty is define by the fact that European Union was endowed with the defense function through adoption of the Treaty of Lisbon that establishes the general security and defense policy.
International Law and International Organizations, 2017-2
Pashkovskaya I.G. - On results of realization by the EU member-countries of the Recommendation of EU Commission of January 22, 2014 on the minimal principles of exploration and extraction of hydrocarbons (such as shale gas) using high-volume hydraulic fracturing pp. 80-94

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0633.2017.2.23049

Abstract: The subject of this research is the level of realization by the EU member-countries of the Recommendation of EU Commission of January 22, 2014 on the minimal principles of exploration and extraction of hydrocarbons (such as shale gas) using high-volume hydraulic fracturing. The object is the activity of the eleven EU member-states: Austria, Great Britain, Hungary, Germany, Denmark, Spain, Lithuania, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, and Romania that expressed the intention towards development of shale gas production in the field of exploration and extraction of shale gas using the high-volume hydraulic fracturing. The author thoroughly examines such aspects of the topic as the minimal principles necessary to comply with for the EU member-states in realization of exploration and extraction of hydrocarbons using the high-volume hydraulic fracturing, which consists it: prevention of the occurrence of threat to people’s health; ensuring freedom for distribution of information; provision of highest level of information awareness for large public. Special attention is given to the study of the EU Commission Report to the European Parliament and EU Council about the effectiveness of Recommendation 2014/70/EU on the minimal principles of exploration and extraction of hydrocarbons (such as shale gas) using high-volume hydraulic fracturing of December 15, 2016. The conclusion is made that such principles of EU Commission Recommendation are mostly implemented in Great Britain, and lesser in Poland. This is an innovative research, the results of which represent large practical importance for the Russian energy policy with regards to the EU member-state and EU as a whole. The scientific novelty consists in identification of the stalemate situation that has established within the EU member-states concerning the exploration and extraction of shale gas using the high-volume hydraulic fracturing despite the bright outlook of shale gas production in the EU based on the evaluation data about the extensive stocks of shale gas concentrated in some European regions.
World Politics, 2017-2
Pashkovskaya I.G. - EU foreign policys jubilee: the tenth anniversary of the Black Sea Synergy Initiative pp. 34-52

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8671.2017.2.23151

Abstract: The research subject is the tenth anniversary of the EU Black Sea Synergy initiative. The research object is the activities of EU in the Black Sea region after Bulgaria and Romania joining in 2007 and the EU’s border extension to the Black Sea. The author considers the results of 10 years of the Black Sea Synergy policy implementation. Its key provisions are contained in the Communication to the Parliament and the Council – a New Regional Cooperation initiative. The author gives special attention to the documents of the EU institutions - the European Parliament and the European Commission -, which contain specific data on successes and failures of the Black Sea Synergy policy implementation. In order to carry out a profound study and obtain reliable and objective results, the author uses the historical, logical, comparative and analytical methods of scientific cognition along with the system analysis, structural and functional analysis, modeling and prognostication. The author concludes that the absence of any significant results of the first decade of the Black Sea Synergy initiative implementation can be explained by the following reasons: the Black Sea Synergy policy and the Eastern Partnership policy haven’t been delimited; there’s no special body responsible for the Black Sea Synergy policy implementation; too few European Commission officers are responsible for the implementation of the Black Sea synergy initiative, as compared with the Eastern Partnership program; the abilities of three EU member-states – Bulgaria, Greece and Romania – to form energy, transport and environmental sectoral partnerships of the Black Sea Synergy have been overestimated; Russia and Turkey – the countries the Black Sea Synergy policy is focused on – try to undermine the EU’ influence in the Black Sea region and don’t support the European Commission’s efforts to implement the Black Sea Synergy policy; the leading international financial institutions are unwilling to support the Black Sea synergy projects. This paper is a comprehensive study based on the central idea; its results are particularly important for the formation of Russia’s policy towards the newly independent states of the Black Sea region, the EU member-states and the EU as a whole in the Black Sea region. The author detects shortcomings and gaps in the Black Sea Synergy policy, which must be eliminated by the EU for the Black Sea Synergy strategy to be more successful. 
International relations, 2016-4
Pashkovskaya I.G. - The importance of signing the TurkStream pipeline agreement for the development of trade and economic relations of Russia with Turkey and other countries of Southeastern, Eastern and Central Europe

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0641.2016.4.20762

Abstract: The research subject (object) is the prospects of development of trade and economic relations between Russia and the countries of Southeastern, Eastern and Central Europe on the base of Russian natural gas export via the TurkStream project. The author considers such aspect of the topic as the impossibility to realize the South Stream project in the countries of Southeastern Europe. Special attention is given to the complicated two-year’s path to signing the TurkStream pipeline agreement between the Governments of the Russian Federation and Turkey in the presence of Russian President Vladimir Putin and the President of Turkey Recep Tayyip Erdoğan. In order to carry out a comprehensive study and obtain full and objective results, the author applies the historical, logical, comparative and analytical methods of cognition and the methodology of system analysis, structural and functional analysis, modeling and prognostication. The paper is a comprehensive innovative study, based on the idea of the prospects of interrelations between Russia and Turkey and other European countries in the gas transportation sphere. The author comes to the conclusion that the TurkStream pipeline agreement symbolizes the new stage of Russia-Turkey relations and expands the horizons of mutually beneficial cooperation of Russia and Turkey in the trade and economic sphere. 
International Law, 2016-4
Pashkovskaya I.G. - Stage of establishment of the political-legal foundations of the foreign energy policy of the European Union pp. 47-63

DOI:
10.7256/2306-9899.2016.4.21429

Abstract: The subject of this research is the process of establishment of the political-legal foundations of the foreign energy policy of the European Union. The object is the adopted by the EU member-states and EU institutions political and legal documents, which set the goals, tasks, principles, and main directions of realization of the foreign energy policy of the European Union. The author carefully examines such aspects of the topic as the attitude of the two leading heads of the states and governments of the EU member-states and chiefs of the EU institutions towards the formation of the single foreign energy policy of the European Union. Special attention is given to the study of the legal power of the documents, the positions of which comprise the foundation of the EU foreign energy policy. The main conclusion consists in determination of the three stages of establishment of the political-legal grounds of the EU foreign energy policy. The author’s main contribution lies in the fact that this article represents an integral, united by the single concept innovation research, the conclusions of which carry great practical importance for the achievement of efficiency in the process of cooperation between Russia and EU member states, as well as EU as a whole, in the area of energy. The scientific novelty consists in determination of the possible ramifications of realization of the EU foreign energy policy for Russia.
World Politics, 2016-2
Pashkovskaya I.G. - The EU’s activities aimed at actualization of the legal foundations of the Economic and Monetary Union after the 2008 global financial and economic crisis  pp. 27-35

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8671.2016.2.19140

Abstract: To overcome the 2008 global financial and economic crisis and eliminate the reasons for such crises in future, the European Union had intensified its activities which resulted in two essentially new treaties in 2012. The first one, the European Stability Mechanism Treaty, established the European Stability Mechanism possessing the legal status of a legal entity with full legal personality and the €700 billion authorized capital. The second, the Treaty on Stability, Coordination and Governance in the Economic and Monetary Union, which hasn’t been joined by Great Britain and the Czech Republic, established the rules aimed at discipline strengthening, the coordination of economic policies of the EU member-states, and raising the effectiveness of the Eurozone countries’ economies management. These new treaties, which have strengthened and enlarged the legal grounds of the Economic and Monetary Union, demonstrate that the European economic and monetary integration is evolving. The analysis of these treaties shows that these international statutory instruments not only help overcome the consequences of the difficult financial and economic condition, which had affected some EU member-states in the result of the 2008 global crisis, and avoid such crises in future, but also symbolize the next step in the development of the European economic and monetary integration which is the basis of the European integration process in general. This fact conditions the important international and political role of these treaties. 
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