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Publications of Naumov Alexander Olegovich
Genesis: Historical research, 2023-12
Naumov A.O., Naumova A.Y. - The Role of Rustavi-2 TV Channel in the Preparation and Implementation of the "Rose Revolution" in Georgia pp. 84-93

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2023.12.39515

Abstract: The object of the proposed study is the "rose revolution" in Georgia the first coup d'etat in the former USSR, carried out with the help of "soft power" technologies. The object of the study is the activity of the opposition TV channel "Rustavi-2" during the preparation and implementation of this "color revolution". The authors consider in detail such aspects of the topic as the emergence of the Rustavi-2 TV channel, its connection with foreign non-governmental organizations, the specifics of the information policy of this media. Special attention is paid to the tactics and strategy of the Rustavi-2 TV channel during the struggle against the regime of Eduard Shevardnadze at various stages of its operation, from the initial stage and up to the active phase of the "rose revolution". The study of the place and role of Rustavi-2 in the implementation of the first "color revolution" in the post-Soviet space in Russian historiography is carried out for the first time. Based on the analysis of the rich empirical material, the authors of the study conclude that the Rustavi-2 TV channel was a consistent opponent of the ruling regime and was one of the key actors of the "rose revolution". This was especially true of his activities in the framework of mobilizing the protest electorate, bringing to the Georgian audience information about falsifications of the results of parliamentary elections, which became the trigger for the beginning of the active phase of the "color revolution", as well as active information support for the political opposition and the youth movement "Kmara".
Genesis: Historical research, 2022-10
Naumov A.O. - The role of the "Ukraine without Kuchma" campaign in the growing socio-political crisis in Ukraine at the beginning of the XXI century pp. 82-90

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2022.10.37245

Abstract: The article examines the campaign "Ukraine without Kuchma", which the Ukrainian opposition conducted from late 2000 to mid-2001 with the aim of resigning the current President of Ukraine Leonid Kuchma and his government. The author examines in detail such aspects of the topic as the causes of the protest movement, the main events of the "Ukraine without Kuchma" campaign, the role of various actors in it and the response of government structures. Particular attention is paid to the technologies of nonviolent struggle used by the opposition in attempts to force the President of Ukraine to leave his post, as well as the reasons for the failure of this campaign. In Russian historiography, a detailed analysis of the "Ukraine without Kuchma" campaign is being conducted for the first time. A special contribution of the author to the research of the topic is the introduction into scientific circulation of new sources, including documents of the Archive of Foreign Policy of the Russian Federation and materials in Ukrainian. The author comes to the conclusion that the campaign "Ukraine without Kuchma" played an important role in the growing socio-political crisis in Ukraine at the beginning of the XXI century. Despite the final defeat of the protesters, the events of 2000-2001 became the prologue to the "Orange Revolution" of 2004, during which the opposition managed to seize power.
Genesis: Historical research, 2021-11
Naumov A.O. - Soft power and public diplomacy of Germany: past and present pp. 133-145

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2021.11.33457

Abstract: The concept of “soft power”, which gained popularity in recent years, was developed by the United States at the end of the Cold War. However, Germany has been using similar foreign policy tools long before the emergence of this term in 1990. The subject of this research is the German strategy of “soft power” with its own tradition and specificity that differs significantly from other countries. Public diplomacy remains the key instrument in building the “soft power” potential of Germany. Therefore, analysis is conducted on the evolution of the main vectors of “soft power” policy of the country and the activity of the key actors of its public diplomacy for the past 150 years. The article describes the use of “soft power” strategies by various political regimes that were in power in Germany. The conclusion is made that in foreign policy of the Federal Republic of Germany, which appeared on the world map in 1949, “soft power” and public diplomacy have played and continue to play an important role, allowing to achieve significant gains on the international arena in light of restrictions imposed after the World War II regarding the use of “hard power” tools. However, the German experience shows that excessive enthusiasm for building the internationally attractive image of the country may lead to quite unpredictable consequences.
International relations, 2021-1
Naumov A.O. - The role of global NGOs advocating for human rights in world politics (on the example of the organization Human Rights Watch) pp. 47-59

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0641.2021.1.33560

Abstract: The object of this research is an international organization “Human Rights Watch” that conducts and advocacy on human rights. The subject of this research is the activity of this international non-governmental organization since its establishment until 2020. The author examines such aspects of the topic as the history of creation of “Human Rights Watch”, the nature of its activity during the Cold War, the evolution of approaches towards the core issues in the area of human rights protection during the post-bipolar period; as well as analyzes the current campaigns of this international NGO. The methodological framework is comprised of the systemic, structural-functional, comparative-political approaches, methods of historicism, analysis, synthesis, induction, deduction, and observation. For the first time in Russian historiography, leaning on the primary sources and relevant scientific literature, the role of international non-governmental organization advocating for human rights “Human Rights Watch” is analyzes within the system of global governance since its foundation until the present. In conclusion, the author indicates a sizable contribution of the organization “Human Rights Watch” alongside other NGOs advocating for human rights in solution of global issues; however notes that these actors of world politics as not utterly unbiased and neutral organizations. On the one hand, namely due to the activity of such organizations, the problem of the supremacy of law,  universal human rights and freedoms became one of the key concepts of international relations at the turn of centuries; but on the other hand, they are rightly criticized for prejudice, political bias, and double standards.
International relations, 2020-3
Naumov A.O. - The role of Anglo-German Naval Agreement in escalation of crisis trends of the Versailles system (based on the materials of new archival documents) pp. 75-84

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0641.2020.3.33013

Abstract: This article reviews the role of Anglo-German Naval Agreement of 1935 in escalation of crisis trends of the Versailles system. Leaning on the British Russian archival documents, which recently became available for the researchers, the author analyzes the reasons and consequences of conclusion of this agreement between the key European democratic power and Nazi Reich. Emphasis is placed on analyzing the moods within the political elite of the United Kingdom. It is proven that the agreement became a significant milestone in escalation of crisis trends in the Versailles model of international relations. It played a substantial role in establishment of the British appeasement policy with regards to revanchist powers in the interbellum; policy that objectively led to disintegration of the created in 1919 systemic mechanism, and thus, the beginning of the World War II. The novelty of this work is substantiated by articulation of the problem. This article is first within the Russian and foreign historiography to analyze execution of the Anglo-German Naval Agreement based on the previously unavailable archival materials. The conclusion is made that this agreement played a crucial role in the process of disintegration of interbellum system of international relations. Having officially sanctioned the violation of the articles of the Versailles Treaty of 1919 by Germany, Great Britain psychologically reconciled to the potential revenge of Germany, which found reflection in the infamous appeasement policy. This launched the mechanism for disruption of status quo that was established after the World War I in Europe. This resulted in collapse of the architecture of international security in the key region of the world, rapid deterioration of relations between the countries, and a new world conflict.
World Politics, 2019-4
Naumov A.O. - Amnesty Internationals role in the global governance system: the past and the present
pp. 73-88

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8671.2019.4.31162

Abstract: The article’s research object is the international non-governmental human rights organization Amnesty International. The research subject is the NGO’s activity since its establishment in 1962 till 2019. The author delves into such aspects of the topic as the history of creation of Amnesty International, its activities during the Cold War, the evolution of its approaches to the main problems in the field of human rights protection during the post-bipolar period, and analyzes the modern campaigns of this global NGO. The research methodology is based on the systems, structural-functional and comparative-political approaches, the methods of historicism, analysis, synthesis, induction, deduction, and observation. The given research is the first in Russian historiography to analyze, based on primary sources and academic works, the role of Amnesty International within the global governance system from its creation to the present day. The author concludes that, despite its controversial character, this NGO has played and is still playing an important role in the world policy.   
International relations, 2019-1
Naumov A.O. - The Use of 'Soft Power' Technologies Against the Change in Political Regimes During the Arab Spring (the Case Study of the Jasmine Revolution in Tunisia) pp. 114-128

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0641.2019.1.23575

Abstract: The object of the research article is the Jasmine Revolution that took place in Tunisia in December 2010 - January 2011. The subject of the research is the soft power technologies that were used to oust the president Ben Ali. The author of the article analyzes such aspects of the topic as the reasons and prerequisites for the Arab spring in general and the take-over in Tunisia in particular, the cours of the Jasmine Revolution and its consequences for that North African country. The author focuses on the use of the soft power technologies, especially digital technologies, during the Jasmine Revolution as well as the role of Western states, primarily USA. The methodological basis of the research involves the systems, structured functional, comparative legal approaches, historicism, analysis, synthesis, induction, deducation and observation. The author concludes that belonging to the second wave of the Color revolutions, the Jasmine Revolution did not give any benefit to the Tunisian nation. Islamic organisations that came to power as a result of the national discontent in Ben Ali's policy could not manage the country well but only exacerbated the issues that Tunisia had. Instead of true democracy and improvements in social and economic environment, the country faced more problems and challenges. According to the author, the USA was not directly related to the rebellion in Tunisia. However, the Jasmine Revolution was morally supported by the overseas and Western 'soft power' technologies, primarily digital resources (social networks, microblogs, opposition sites) played the key role in the process. On the other side, the White house hoped to reach a conerete geopolitical goal which was the total reformation of the geopolitical structure of the Greater Middle East. Yet, the actual results of the Arab spring in general and Jasmine Revolution in particular differed a lot from what Washington wanted to see. 
International relations, 2016-2
Naumov A.O. - Soft power of the Land of the Rising Sun

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0641.2016.2.16470

Abstract: The article studies the potential of Japan’s soft power. The author analyzes the main sources, institutions, problems and prospects of this direction of foreign policy of contemporary Japan. Since the early 21st century, the emphasis of Japan’s soft power has been placed on the promotion of the modern popular culture. The special “Cool Japan” concept had been developed. The concept was supported by Japanese scientists and politicians. Today, this concept is being implemented by Japanese soft power institutions – the Agency of Culture, working within the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sport, Science and Technology and the Ministry of Internal affairs of Japan, the Cool Japan Fund and the Japanese centers established in the late 20th centuries in the developing states. The author applies the method of historicism, the institutional approach and comparative analysis. Japan’s soft power is studied in its historical aspect; the author analyzes the work of its institutions and compares its potential with the potentials of soft power of other countries of Asia-Pacific region. The author concludes that contemporary Japan tries to win the world not with the attractiveness of its ancient traditions, but with the modern technologies and popular culture. Thus, Japan’s soft power is primarily aimed at achieving its geo-economic objectives. 
World Politics, 2016-2
Naumov A.O. - “Colour Revolutions” as a threat to state sovereignty: the case of Kyrgyzstan pp. 36-45

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8671.2016.2.17599

Abstract: The author analyzes the influence of “colour revolutions” on state sovereignty of the modern nation-states using the example of the Republic of Kyrgyzstan. The differential peculiarity of “colour revolutions” on the post-Soviet space was their non-violent character. Though the mechanism, developed by the Western geopolitical engineering specialists, failed during the 2005 “Tulip Revolution” in Kyrgyzstan. The technologies and results of the “Tulip Revolution” had a destructive influence on the Kyrgyz society. Its consequences turned in the series of crises, among which the most significant was the second Kyrgyz revolution of 2010, the slipping down to the status of a failed state and the prospect of the civil war and the loss of state sovereignty. The research methodology is based on the system, structural-functional and comparative-political approaches, the methods of analysis, synthesis, induction, deduction and observation. The problem of state sovereignty in the context of the current crisis of the global governance system is very significant. “Colour revolutions” are among the most serious threats to the normal functioning of states. In the last 15 years, the wave of “revolutions” overflew several countries of Europe, Asia and Africa. Kyrgyzstan became one of their victims. The author concludes that only by virtue of the transition to the new system of administration, especially the policy of a close cooperation with Russia, Kyrgyzstan, subjected to the external “democratization” in the form of the 2005 “colour revolution”, manage to preserve its sovereignty and integrity. 
World Politics, 2015-4
Naumov A.O. - The BRICS countries Soft Power (the case of Brazil and the Republic of South Africa) pp. 27-40

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8671.2015.4.17025

Abstract: The subject of the study is the potential and the main directions of “soft power” of the BRICS countries, namely the Federative Republic of Brazil and the Republic of South Africa. Brazil and South Africa are the rising powers of the present, with the claims on economic and political leadership, respectively, in the regions of Latin America and Africa. Despite the seeming differences, these countries have a lot in common. Apart from the BRICS membership, Brazil and South Africa are the centers of the unique civilizations, the engines of economic growth and integration processes in South America and Africa. Finally, they only start realizing their “soft power” policies on the international arena and often choose parallel courses, which is of a special scientific interest. The methodology of the research is based on the systems approach, the structural-functional and comparative approaches, the methods of analysis, synthesis, induction, deduction, observation. Today the “soft power” instruments are gaining special importance for the BRICS countries. After several years of a successful progressive development and economic growth, in 2015 the BRICS countries have faced new serious challenges. In the new circumstances, in order to maintain their positions on the international scene, the BRICS countries need to use the instruments of “soft power”. In Russian historiography the comparative analysis of the potential and the main directions of “soft power” of Brazil and South Africa is carried out for the first time. 
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