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Publications of Yanik Andrey Aleksandrovich
Politics and Society, 2019-6
Yanik A.A. - Determination of the expectations of Russian society towards priorities in advancement of science and technologies: to statement of the problem pp. 15-25


Abstract:  This article is dedicated to substantiation of the need for solving the problem caused by the absence of reliable data on the public expectations towards priorities in scientific and technological progress of the country. It is noted that the lack of such information in hands of the branches of government increases the risk of faults (including due to the conflict of interests) in determination and specification of the priorities of scientific and technological progress, creation of the systems of impact assessment of research and development sector, as well as budget spending efficiency. Based on the analysis of the relevant foreign experience, the author demonstrates the solutions encouraging public involvement in management of scientific development. The correlation is underlined between the underdevelopment of the mechanisms of public participation in management of scientific progress and low level of public trust in science, as well as lack of interest towards innovations. The author suggests the method for determining public expectations towards priorities in advancements of science and technologies, using the crowdsourcing toolset. Such solution has the characteristics of social innovation.
Conflict Studies / nota bene, 2019-4
Yanik A.A. - Advancement of the Indo-Pacific concept as a mechanism for changing the regional strategic balance: from Haushofer to Trump pp. 64-83


Abstract: The subject of this research is the analysis of evolution of representations on the content of Indo-Pacific concept in the official discourse of number of foreign countries – the largest beneficiaries of advancement of the Indo-Pacific idea. The author traces the history of emergence of the term, clarifies the chronological and geographical benchmarks indicating the trajectory of entrance of the Indo-Pacific idea into the information space, as well as notes its conflictogenic risks. The conclusion is made that the actions of the United States on advancing the Indo-Pacific idea alongside cognominal strategy may be assessed as a semantic policy, one of the instruments of a complex set of measures aimed at changing strategic balance in the corresponding region of the world. It is demonstrated that due to different, at times diametrically opposed views of the entities formally constituting the Indo-Pacific region, related to the concept and objectives of this geostrategic and geoeconomic project, the development prospects of Indo-Pacific remain obscure. The author highlights that not only the origins of ideas on the Indo-Pacific as a geostrategic construct, but also the semantic policy methods of Japan and the United States, date back to heritage of Karl Haushofer and the times of the World War II. The author provides development projections of the situation in megaregion.
Trends and management, 2019-4
Yanik A.A. - Digital depersonalization of scientific results as an unaccounted risk of modernization of the system of scientific management in the Russian Federation pp. 17-30


Abstract: This work explores number of unaccounted risks that immerge in the course of modernization of state management of scientific development in Russia, under the influence of a complex of circumstances of various origin. It is demonstrated that stimulation of transfer of scientific results into international citation systems, allowing solution of the current tasks of measurement and assessment of the efficiency of scientific work, is one of the links in the chain of greater process – annexation of countries to the global added value chains in the area of production and use of knowledge. Broader context reveals that digital depersonalization of scientific results in combination with the impossibility of legal protection of the ideas, theories and discoveries contained in the articles, can potentially establish a country in within the less profitable segment of the chain with maximal transaction costs. Objective downside to the multidimensional view of the global context, in which the reform of Russian science is taking place, is that it does not allow forecasting full spectrum of possible consequences at the early stages. It would seem that constant analysis of the multilevel effects, caused by the current management practice, is necessary not only for improving the quality of local solutions, but also for correction of strategies.
NB: Administrative Law and Administration Practice, 2019-2
Yanik A.A. - Changes in the System of Managing the Development of the USA's Space Sector: the Case Study Results pp. 5-21


Abstract: The object of the research is the system of state management of developing the space sector in the USA. The subject of the case study is the changes that have been happening in the system of management of American space development under the conditions of instability, uncertainty, complexity and contradictions of the modern world. The author of the article focuses on such phenomena as the growth of interest towards the evaluation of societal effects of space projects and programs, improvement of the mechanism that records numerous interfaces of stakeholders, transformation of the role of different elements in the system of state management of space development in order to preserve the leading position of the USA disregarding the external conditions. To achieve the aforesaid research objectives, the author has used general research methods (generalisation, analysis and synthesis), empirical and comparative (comparative history, comparative law) research methods. The author demonstrates that analysis of mechanisms that allow national management systems to make efficient changes and successfully perform their tasks (including space development) is an important area for further research. The author notes that excessive regulation of executive authorities' activity reduces their adaptability. Based on the analysis of the USA, the author demonstrates that under current conditions the role of auditing chambers is growing because this is the institution that offers a unique 'feedback' mechanism and may act not only legally and legitimately but also fast and efficiently. 
Space Research, 2019-2
Yanik A.A. - Problems of assessment of social and economic impacts from space technologies development (European experience) pp. 9-19


Abstract: This papers analyses problems related to monitoring and evaluating social and economic impacts arising from the development of space economy, especially space technologies. Using the best practices of the European Space Agency, various approaches to creating evaluation systems are considered. Special attention is paid to the Copernicus Program, mainly to the ways of identifying, measuring, and assessing the benefits for the economy and society resulting from its implementation. This research systematizes the main types of benefits that can be monitored. The author shows that interdisciplinary approaches are essential for solving theoretical and practical problems related to obtaining reliable data for decision makers in space technologies investments. Moreover, the formation of analytical skills in identifying social impacts is necessary for experts who realize the assessment procedures.
Space Research, 2019-1
Yanik A.A. - Space Transformation of the Economy: Harbingers and Trends pp. 1-14


Abstract: The subject of the research is the problems of analysis and monitoring of a new economic phenomenon - the global space economy. Russian economics and official documents do not use the concept of "space economy." However, internationally, it has become firmly established in public discourse; the space economy is the object of systematic observations, cross-country comparisons, and evaluation. The paper shows that the evolution of the space economy and the growth of its influence on "earthly life" are ahead of scientific understanding. But attention to this object is necessary because, according to various signs, we can state the beginning of the "space transformation" of the world economy.The paper develops theoretical ideas about the phenomenon of the space economy and analyses the difficulties associated with monitoring this phenomenon. The author concludes that the vision of a space economy transformative role is increasingly spreading in the international context. However, as with digital transformation, the scientific understanding of this process is still lagging behind the rapidly changing realities.
Trends and management, 2018-3
Yanik A.A. - Peculiarities of managing development of the space industry of the United States: the role of the Government Accountability Office pp. 42-56


Abstract: The object of this research is the peculiarities of managing development of the space industry of the United States, since this country is able to maintain leadership in space despite rapid and drastic changes of external factors. The subject of this article is the analysis of the place and role of the Government Accountability Office (GAO) within the American “ecosystem” of space management. Special attention is given to the functionality of this agency as an outline of “feedback”, as well as its impact upon the improvement of state space policy and the activity of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The author analyzed the main methods and functions of the Government Accountability Office of the United States pertaining to the assessment of the projects and activities of NASA. It is noted that the Government Accountability Office not only timely detects the potential planning errors and problems of implementation of large-scale NASA projects, but also objectivity contributes to prevention of budget risks and optimization of the national space policy.
Space Research, 2018-2
Yanik A.A. - National Space Council: Historical Aspects of the Implementation of the Mechanism of Coordination of Interests in the Development of the U.S. Space Policy pp. 1-33


Abstract: The subject of the study is more than half a century history of the formation and development of the U. S. National Space Council, as an element of the space policy development system, that designed to harmonize the positions and interests of various stakeholders. Particular attention is paid to aspects that demonstrate the complexity of the introduction of these mechanisms into the governing practice of the space sector of the U.S. economy. Although the process is not yet completed (regarding compliance with the current state of affairs to the target model) the analysis of American experience allows identifying useful public management practices in the very competitive area of the global economy. The work was carried out with the using a comparative analysis of the legal acts and documentary sources.
Trends and management, 2018-1
Yanik A.A. - To the concept of space economy pp. 51-66


Abstract: This article is devoted to the issues of conceptualization of the concept of “space economy”. Currently, this term is practically unused within the Russian public discourse and is absent in both, the conceptual apparatus of the science, as well as in the official political legal documents. However, the objective need for adequate account of the changing international context in the national development strategies (increase in competition on the global space market, challenges of the new “space race”, active stimulation of space activity by national governments as the driver of socioeconomic progress) makes the subject relevant for Russian science and practice. The work demonstrates the advantages of inclusion of the concept of “space economy” into the scientific and practical discourse. It is illustrated that the discussion on the concepts is a necessary component of understanding the reality, since the absence of an adequate term often excludes important processes with long-term prospects from the sphere of perception (and thus, control and management). The author formulates a number of practical recommendations on improvements of the institutional legal provision of development of the Russian space sector.
Politics and Society, 2017-12
Yanik A.A., Popova S.M. - Social focus of the national science-innovation policy: problems and solutions pp. 23-34


Abstract:  This article is dedicated to the analysis of foreign experience of managing academic development applicable to augmenting of social focus of the national science-innovation policy. Particular attention is turned to the conceptual approaches underlying the modern system of government administration over the scientific sector in the economically developed countries, primarily the idea of justification of the existence of science by the social importance of its results. The goal of this work consists in critical examination of the key achievements and issues associated with the attempts of establishing the “feedback” systems between science, government, and society for increasing the social focus of scientific research. The authors demonstrate the essentiality of increasing the social focus of scientific policy due to the fact that an objectively limited amount of resources aimed at scientific development, can be considered as a certain critical level of social agreement with the development rates of specific academic disciplines and projects. The article also underlines the problems that emerge due to the utilitarian understanding of the idea of social responsibility of scientific research and expansion of neo- managerialism into the academic sphere. This particularly concerns the disparity between the accountability and freedom of the scientific inquiry. Moreover, the increase in bureaucratic objections to the role of the “sole representative” of public interests (moral agent) in relations with science can lead to distortion of the quality of feedback, and as a result, decrease in efficiency of control over the academic development for achieving the socially important goals.  
Modern Education, 2017-4
Yanik A.A., Popova S.M. - Intensification of dirigisme in managing science, innovations, and higher education in the United Kingdom after the Brexit pp. 118-130


Abstract: This article is dedicated to the results of the regular stage of monitoring (2016-2017) of the newest changes in the strategy of managing science, innovations, and higher education in the United Kingdom due to the referendum consequences on the country’s exit from the European Union. Special attention is given to the examination of strategic documents and decisions of the British government, including the new law on higher education and science (April of 2017). The authors analyze the content and meaning of the current conceptual and organizational changes, as well as predict the possible consequences. A conclusion is made that intensification of the course towards centralization of management system, restriction of academic freedoms, and methods of dirigisme in the development of science, innovations, and higher education are associated with the escalation of crisis phenomena in the country and unaccounted “Brexit” effects. It is noted that at the present moment, the growing financial responsibilities of the British government before the academic community is a way of defusing the political tension, rather than the circumspect development strategy. Further monitoring of the British experience will allow assessing the efficiency of the new course from the perspective of its productivity and correspondence of the selected methods with the set goals and tasks.
Space Research, 2017-3
Yanik A.A. - Space programs and the problems of estimating societal impact of the Big Science projects


Abstract: The research subject is the activities of innovatively developed countries in the development of theoretical models, metrics and mechanisms helping to estimate societal impact of large-scale research projects (Big Science) as, consequently, manage the current and long-term impact of the development of science and innovations on socio-economic progress. Special attention is given to the need to estimate societal impact of expensive space programs. The purpose of the research is to determine the experience that could be used in Russia and to elaborate recommendations for its using. To solve the research tasks, the author uses general theoretical and empirical methods and interdisciplinary approaches. Though the positive impact of the Big Science projects on social development seems obvious, the newest scientific works don’t provide any evidence based proofs of this thesis. In the context of increased public attention to the quality of national resources management, it becomes extremely important to develop scientific instruments helping analyze the presence of interdependence between the increase of expenditures for large scale scientific projects and the growth of innovativeness of changes. In the Russian Federation, this sphere is at the initial stage of formation. It seems reasonable to activate such projects within the Scientific and Technological Development Strategy of the Russian Federation for 2017 – 2019. 
Space Research, 2017-2
Yanik A.A. - Peculiarities of commercialization of the results of private research and development for NASA: the experience of the Small Business Innovation Research Program


Abstract: The research subject is the analysis of the specificity of NASA’s interrelation with small and medium businesses in the sphere of scientific research and development. The research is based on the results of NASA’s public-private partnership programs in the sphere of space activities, primarily the long-term Small Business Innovation Research Program (SBIR). Special attention is given to the methods used for the evaluation of the progress of commercialization of the results of small businesses’ R&D for the aerospace agency. To solve the research tasks, the author uses general scientific research methods – formal-logical, comparative, transition from concrete to abstract, analysis, synthesis and others. Based on the results of the regular effectiveness audit of the SBIR program, conducted by national academies of sciences of the USA, the author concludes that the development of NASA’s management systems, including the level of its adaptability, ability to transform, and transparency, is a necessary condition, but it is not enough for the improvement of the research intensity of the related economic sector. The author concludes that within NASA’s area of responsibility, including its key state partners, general contractors, the academic community and other participants of scientific and innovation activities, the models of evaluation of the level of commercialization in terms of common economic activities (for example, the volume of sales or gross proceeds) have limited applicability. The main criteria are the broadening of the total volume of technological knowledge in space and missile sector, and the potential commercial value of R&D results, even if they haven’t entered the market yet. Another criterion is the development level of the information infrastructure of the sector, which is also the key instrument of functioning of the modern system of space activities. 
Space Research, 2017-2
Tao Y., Muller J. - A novel method for surface exploration: Super-resolution restoration of Mars repeat-pass orbital imagery


Abstract: Higher resolution imaging data of planetary surfaces is considered desirable by the international community of planetary scientists interested in improving understanding of surface formation processes. However, given various physical constraints from the imaging instruments through to limited bandwidth of transmission one needs to trade-off spatial resolution against bandwidth. Even given optical communications, future imaging systems are unlikely to be able to resolve features smaller than 25 cm on most planetary bodies, such as Mars. In this paper, we propose a novel super-resolution restoration technique, called Gotcha-PDE-TV (GPT), taking advantage of the non-redundant sub-pixel information contained in multiple raw orbital images in order to restore higher resolution imagery. We demonstrate optimality of this technique in planetary image super-resolution restoration with example processing of 8 repeat-pass 25 cm HiRISE images covering the MER-A Spirit rover traverse in Gusev crater to resolve a 5 cm resolution of the area. We assess the “true” resolution of the 5 cm super-resolution restored images using contemporaneous rover Navcam imagery on the surface and an inter-comparison of landmarks in the two sets of imagery.
Space Research, 2017-1
Pindják P. - Strengthening the EU's positions in space: on the adoption of the Space Security Concept


Abstract: The recently unveiled EU Global Strategy on Foreign and Security Policy presents bold and ambitious plans in several increasingly important domains for Europe, including outer space. The EU has committed itself to securing an autonomous access to space, providing security for its space-based assets, and promoting the adoption of a voluntary code of conduct in space. With the evolving dynamics in astropolitics, space security has become an ever more important aspect of space activities. Clearly, the EU has a vested interest in space security, whereas space-enabled services form an important part of European economy and contribute to the effective implementation of its energy policy, migration, border control as well as domestic and international crisis management. Since the EU is currently in the process of drafting a European Space Strategy, it should seize the opportunity to take stock of its existing space programs and lay out a promising way forward. The research subject is the recommendations for the European Space Strategy projects based on the assessment of the existing space programs and the prospects of their modernization. The author applies the general logical methods and comparative analysis (comparative-legal and comparative-historical). The author also uses the methods of the general system theory, risk assessment and management, and prognostication of safety of space infrastructure objects. Besides reinforcing the existing Copernicus and Galileo programs and further developing the Governmental Satellite Communications (GOVSATCOM) project, the EU should make a significant investment in space security, particularly through boosting its Space Surveillance and Tracking (SST) capabilities and actively working on the international fora to promote a responsible behavior in outer space that could be eventually transformed into a voluntary international code of conduct. Through a comprehensive space policy and by reinforcing its autonomy in outer space, the EU will not only strengthen its foreign and security policy, but also reconfirm its relevant role in global affairs.
Space Research, 2017-1
Payson D.B., Popova S.M. - Innovative development of the rocket and space industry in Russia: challenges and potentialities pp. 36-45


Abstract: The research subject is the peculiarities of innovative development of the rocket and space industry in the Russian Federation. Based on the complex analysis of external and internal challenges and the institutional and legal context of this sector reforming, the authors detect the obstacles to quantitative changes in the development of one of the key sectors of Russia’s economics. The study shows that in the context of the new challenges, the improvement of adaptive capacities of the rocket and space industry of Russia and its capacity for internal changes and transparency is of a prime importance. To accomplish the research tasks, the authors apply the system, structural-functional, comparative-historical, comparative-legal, formal-logical and other research methods. The authors conclude that in terms of the peculiarities of the goals and tasks of the “Roscosmos” company, it is becoming a unique institution, according to its scale and complexity, working in the sphere of development of a specific sector of Russia’s economics, though its institutional status and the related functions haven’t been formally legalized in the federal legislation. The authors note that the successful modernization of the rocket and space industry determines the possibility for Russia to remain the leader in the field of space exploration.  
Space Research, 2017-1
Zhang L., Zhao R., Ma M. - Black hole entropy in the Reissner-Nordström-de Sitter model pp. 5-9


Abstract: The paper studies the development of the macroscopic methods of high-energy physics analysis. The authors consider the evolution of black holes within the phenomenological approach, analogous to classical thermodynamics, in which the black hole area determines its entropy, and the surface gravitation, correspondingly, - the temperature, in the framework of the relativist cosmological model (de Sitter universe). The research subject is the ways of calculation of effective thermodynamic properties of black holes. To calculate a black hole entropy, the authors apply the event horizon and cosmological horizon interdependence hypothesis. To accomplish the research task, the authors apply the system and structural-functional approaches, the methods of cosmology, relativistic mechanics and Einstein’s geometric theory of gravitation, in particular, the exact solutions of the Einstein field equations with the cosmological constant for the Reissner- Nordström metric for the space-time description. The authors find the analytical solution for the calculation of the total entropy of a spherically symmetric charged black hole in the Reissner- Nordström model for de Sitter universe. The paper shows that the expression for entropy includes not only the sum of entropies of the event horizon and cosmological horizon of the black hole, but also the additional term, taking into account their entanglement. The obtained results of black hole thermodynamics extend the analogy with the first law of thermodynamics, thus broadening the applicability of the approach to the cosmological studies. 
Space Research, 2017-1
Gladkov I.A. - New technologies of aircrafts flight parameters measurement in a non-query mode


Abstract: The author develops the theory elements and the methods of measurement data presentation and the definition of the flight parameters of launch and space vehicles. The research subject is the system of trajectory measurements, defining the flight parameters of aircrafts in a non-query mode during the rocket and space machinery units field testing. The parameters of a signal, received from the on-board transmitter, are functionally connected with the object’s flight parameters. This connection is expressed as the Doppler frequency shift and used for the measurement of orbits of spacecrafts and other flying objects. Besides, the received signal bears the information about the distance to the object, which can be calculated using the signal lag, proportional to the radio-wave transmission time. The purpose of the study is to define the conditions for the extension of a spacecraft state vector and the distance measurement in a non-query mode. To accomplish this task, the author applies the modernized morphological analysis as a basis for the generation of new ideas, the formation of the system of models and the search for patterns via the systematized generalization of knowledge on different levels, and the system and structural-functional approaches. The author uses the methods of linear algebra, mathematical modeling of stochastic processes and computer methods of measurement data processing. The author solves the practically important problem of increase of flight parameters defining accuracy via the non-query method using additional measurement functions. The analysis shows that the application of the state vector extension theory allows not only increasing the validity of the analysis of flight parameters of the tested aircrafts, but also reducing the number of test launches during the rocket and space units field testing. 
Space Research, 2017-1
Storm M., Stevenson G., Hovis F., Gavert W., Dang X., Darab A., Chuang T., Burns P. - Lidar and Laser technologies for NASAs Cloud Aerosol Transport System (CATS) basing on the International Space Station (JEM-EF)


Abstract: The paper studies the methodological approaches and evaluates the possibility to use the technology of acquiring and processing information about the location, composition and distribution of aerosol clouds, water suspensions and other particles in Earth’s atmosphere using active optical instruments (lasers and photon counters). The research purpose is the analysis of the prospects of creation of the new generation of high technology measurement instruments using the external company services, including the space and land-based components, analogous to NASA’s lidar Cloud Aerosol Transport System, basing in the Exposed Facility of the Japanese Experimental Module of the International Space Station. To solve the research task, the authors apply the system and structural-functional approaches. The authors use the general methods of physics and engineering methods, particularly, the methods of astrometry, spectrophotometry, optoelectronics, laser technology and engineering design. The technology components and the space measurement complex, including two 25W multiwave solid-state impulse lasers and 32 avalanche multichannel photodetectors, had successfully worked for more than 300 hours in outer space during February 2016 and helped collect practical information about the characteristics of aerosols and some gases in Earth’s atmosphere. The authors demonstrate practical possibility to involve a small group of engineers of the private Fibertek, Inc. company for the fast and cost-competitive creation of the new generation of space lidars, including such high-technology operations as construction and design, creation of an operational product, its testing and deployment in space. 
Politics and Society, 2016-12
Yanik A.A., Popova S.M. - Changes in the system of state administration for science in the United Kingdom after the Brexit referendum


Abstract:  The subject of this research is the current changes in the system of state administration for science in the United Kingdom. The article provided the results of the analysis of the main directions of changed in organization of administration for scientific development, strategic documents, and general ideas of the new British government regarding the principles and methods of state management in this sphere after the referendum on the United Kingdom's withdrawal from the European Union. The modern British experience represents interest for Russia from the perspective of the assessment of efficiency of the vector for expansion of the government’s “presence” in science, selected by T. May’s government as a risk prevention took associated with the consequences of Brexit. The conclusion is made about the negative impact of Brexit upon the international projects of British Scholars, prospects of development of the global competitiveness of British science, as well as the rates of implementation of UK’s plans on achieving the status of the leader of innovations (currently the country is in the “second echelon” on the level of innovation development). In situation of the large-scale external and domestic changes, the efficiency of the course towards further centralization of the system of state administration for science and innovations is not quite evident.  
Politics and Society, 2016-7
Yanik A.A., Popova S.M. - The improvement of scientific policy for the purpose of social development: the experience of Poland (2010-2015)


Abstract: This article presents the results of analysis of the modern scientific policy of Poland, which is one of the key instruments of the development strategy implementation on the innovational basis. Poland’s experience attracts Russian scholars not just because of the presence of similar features in the national systems of organization of science, but also because the contours of the Russian scientific reform in many ways resemble the Polish model, started in 2010. Special attention is given to the examination of the mechanism of development and realization of Poland’s scientific policy, as well to the assessment of the interval results of the Polish radical scientific reform (2010-2015). The authors make a conclusion that the radical scientific reform in Poland did not lead to significant changes in indexes of the innovational development of the country, which remain some of the lowest in the EU, and the possibility of meeting the planned by 2020 volumes of scientific budget (1.7% from GDP) is justifiably questionable. Despite the active absorption of general European recommendations, Poland’s scientific policy in fact develops by trial and error.  The scientific reform has not yet become an organic part of the complex development policy; and a successful utilization of financial support from the EU funds did not produce synergetic effects, which contribute into the establishment of a sustainable scientific-innovation ecosystem.
Sociodynamics, 2016-5
Yanik A.A., Popova S.M. - About the system of social monitoring based on the qualitative data on the status of Russian society pp. 39-57


Abstract: This article is dedicated to the methodological approaches and assessment of possibilities of establishment of the national system of monitoring Russian society based on the qualitative data. Within the framework of interdisciplinary studies, the authors conduct an analysis of the modern foreign and Russian experience of using the qualitative data for the monitoring of social development. The article examines the barriers that impede the knowledge content of the existing mechanisms of management of social development associated with achievement of the public consensus on the models of the desired future, choice of the targeted indexes of development, and principles of assessment of success. Special attention is given to the approaches of structural functionalism, as well as to the ideas about the society as a self-developing system, the key characteristics of which are stability and adaptivity. The conclusion is made that the new global challenges led to the change in conceptual ideas about the essence and goals of social development and the corresponding modification of the metrics of progress, in which an ever bigger role is being played by the quantitative data and the subjective assessments of people. The conducted analysis demonstrates the in modern Russia there are all necessary structural elements for establishment of the system of coordination and realization of the targeted model of society, as well as the constantly acting national system of social monitoring (using the qualitative data on the status of society) as an essential element of the system of state strategic administration.
Genesis: Historical research, 2016-4
Popova S.M., Yanik A.A. - E-archive of the Interfax news as the source on the history of USSR and Russia of late XX early XXI centuries pp. 149-175


Abstract: The article is dedicated to the analysis of the archival database of news agency "Interfax" as the source of the reliable facts which describe the key events of the political and economic history of the USSR and Russia of the late XX – early XXI centuries. The authors give and external and internal criticism of the source, as well as examine the circumstances of its emergence and existence, authorship, peculiarities of the structure and content, quality of the presented information, as well as the prospects of its implementation in researches of the history of modern Russia. Special attention is given to the information standards of “Interfax”, which influenced the formation of the source and its distinctive characteristics. This work is first to demonstrate and examine the digital archive of the “Interfax” news as the historical source. It is noted that just over the period of 1989-1999, the database contains more than 1.6 million messages on the key events of the sociopolitical and economic history of USSR and Russia. Thanks to the information standards of the agency, all news messages are notable for its trustworthiness, practical accuracy, and preserve the live reaction of the contemporaries upon the changes that take place in the country. The authors make a conclusion on the value of the “Interfax” archive as the source of the adequate and precise information on the history of USSR and modern Russia.
Modern Education, 2016-2
Yanik A.A., Popova S.M. - Main peculiarities of the modern scientific policy in Germany pp. 25-51


Abstract: This article introduces the results of the analysis of peculiarities of state control over the scientific development in the Federative Republic of Germany. The contemporary German experience represents interest for Russia due to the fact that both countries are federations, which leads to the emergence of more complex mechanisms of development and realization of the scientific policy, rather than in the countries with Unitarian form of government structure. The work carefully examines the fundamental elements of the system of strategic planning in the area of scientific development and innovations, including the key legal acts. The conclusion is made that the main specificities of the German management model for scientific development (absence of strict hierarchy; use of communicational mechanisms for the formation of “agreement platform” between all the political actors and groups of interest; delimitation of responsibilities, authority, and finances between the level of federation, level of lands, and others) are the result of implementation of the principles of cooperative federalism (“maximum agreement, minimum force”)  into all the spheres of social life. The effectively operating on all levels mechanisms of achieving political consensus, as well as extensive use of high-tech support of decision-making, help the government to provide the successiveness of the general strategic line in combination with the adaptiveness of the current scientific policy.
Genesis: Historical research, 2016-1
Yanik A.A. - Arrival of young reformers towards administration of the Russian economy: analysis of coincidences and regularities pp. 74-113


Abstract: The subject of this research is the analysis of events which resulted in the ascent of the community of young economists towards the management of the Russian reforms, who were later called the “young reformers”. A special attention is given to the examination of the facts within a broad historical context that helps to avoid falling into a trap of the popular narratives that lead to mythologization of ideas associated with the complicated processed of the Russian history of the late XX century. The goal of this work is to explore by what means the chain of events will gradually transform into a consistent and historically inevitable outcome, when the initial endless pi of the personal trajectories subsequently leads to the only possible way of realization of the collective historical drama. The author comes to a conclusion that under the conditions of crises, drastically increases the demand for the scientific knowledge on the management of public and economic development, and thus the responsibility for the quality of the events belongs to both, the government and the expert community. The history shows that by the end of 1991, only the “young reformers” were ready to operate in emergency conditions, which required increased efficiency and the ability to present scientific ability as the “product” for practical implementation.
Space Research, 2016-1
Gladkov I.A. - Error models in a hyperbolic system pp. 15-21


Abstract: The subject of this research is the complexes and means of navigational positioning, as well as multi-parameter phasometric systems of trajectory changes, which contain channels capable of safely measuring the angular coordinates and the rate of changes of the angular coordinates of moving objects. The downside to such systems is the fact that the lines of positioning on which the object is located are considered to be linear. Thus, the acceptable precision of the measurements of angular coordinates is preserved only when the distance to object is several times greater than the base of measurement. This article explores an important case, when the length of the measurement base is equal or even greater than the distance to the object. The research was conducted on the possibility of transitioning towards the hyperbolic system of trajectory changes (or a system of changes when the lines of positioning on which the moving object is located are hyperbolas). The achieved analytical dependencies of precision of determining the angular coordinates in arbitrary distances to the moving objects in the presupposition that the line of positioning is a line of intersection of two hyperboloids of rotation formed by two mutually perpendicular bases. These analytical dependencies allow us to not only a priori assess the precision, validity, and reliability of receiving navigational parameters of the moving objects, but also calculate the scientifically grounded limitations of the work of the complexes and measuring means.
Space Research, 2016-1
Payson D.B. - The phenomenon of the SpaceX as a challenge to the international space market pp. 36-50


Abstract: This article is devoted to the research of the latest changes taking place on the international space market, as well as the new challenges emerging before its major players, including U. S. and Russia. The main attention is given to the analysis of the peculiarities of the strategy and work of one of the most unusual “players” in the modern space economy – a private American corporation SpaceX, which not only sort of challenged the current tradition in this area, but also actively influences the process of its institutional renovation. This work assesses the influence of the “SpaceX phenomenon” upon the institutional environment of the space economy on the national (United States) and global scale, upon trends of development of the global space activity, and national space “agenda”. Although the examined phenomenon is an endemic product of American system and the experience of SpaceX is unlikely to be transferred in an unchanged form into other national jurisdictions, the work of the corporation is objectively becoming the drive of development of the space market as a whole. The new U. S. model of relations between the state and the private sector in the space sphere is currently significantly ahead of any analogues of the Old World, and thus, this experience requires meticulous studying for the purpose of transferring valuable results.
Space Research, 2016-1
., ., ., ., . - Four-year bacterial monitoring in the International Space Station - Japanese Experiment Module Kibo with culture-independent approach pp. 1-14


Abstract: Studies on the relationships between humans and microbes in space habitation environments are critical for success in long-duration space missions, to reduce potential hazards to the crew and the spacecraft infrastructure. We performed microbial monitoring in the Japanese Experiment Module “Kibo”, a part of the International Space Station, for 4 years after its completion, and analyzed samples with modern molecular microbiological techniques. Sampling was performed in September 2009, February 2011, and October 2012. The surface of the incubator, inside the door of the incubator, an air intake, air diffuser, and handrail were selected as sampling sites. Sampling was performed using the optimized swabbing method. Abundance and phylogenetic affiliation of bacteria on the interior surfaces of Kibo were determined by quantitative PCR and pyrosequencing, respectively. Bacteria in the phyla Proteobacteria (γ-subclass) and Firmicutes were frequently detected on the interior surfaces in Kibo. Families Staphylococcaceae and Enterobacteriaceae were dominant. Most bacteria detected belonged to the human microbiota; thus, we suggest that the bacterial cells are transferred to the surfaces in Kibo from the astronauts. Environmental bacteria such as Legionella spp. were also detected. From the data on bacterial abundance and phylogenetic affiliation, Kibo has been microbiologically well maintained; however, the microbial community structure in Kibo may change with prolonged stay of astronauts. Continuous monitoring is required to obtain information on changes in the microbial community structure in Kibo.
Sociodynamics, 2015-12
Popova S.M., Yanik A.A. - Expansion of the contact zone of state and society as a relevant trend in the development of socio-political system of Russia pp. 1-22


Abstract: The subject of this research is the modern trends of the socio-political development of the Russian Federation that contribute into preservation of stability and adaptiveness of the social system under the conditions of a rapidly changing world. A special attention is given to the processes associated with the further expansion of the “contact zone” of society and state. The author particularly analyzes the data on the condition of the “third sector”, which can become one of the effective instruments to the targeted solution of the important social issues. The author reviews various phenomena related to the transition of the government towards customer-oriented principles of activity, as well as to the emergence of elements of e-democracy and general expansion of internet technologies into the political sphere. Based on the conducted analysis, the conclusion is made that the complex expansion of the “contact zone” between society and state, alongside with the use of various influential techniques aimed at strengthening the inner unity of society, represent efficient instruments that are able to ensure effective balance of stability and adaptiveness of the socio-political system of the Russian Federation under the current turbulent circumstances.
Taxes and Taxation, 2015-11
Yanik A.A., Popova S.M. - New Tax Incentives for Innovations: Experience of Some European Countries


Abstract: The article is devoted to the analysis of modern systems of tax incentives for research and innovation in the four European countries – the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Germany and France. According to international rankings, all of these countries have a comparable high level of innovation development, but differ greatly in the structure and principles of public sector support for science and innovation. The authors of the article have considered current changes in tax incentive policy that were introduced in connection with the adoption by the national governments of new strategic documents in the field of innovative development. To achieve the research objectives, the authors have applied general logical methods of scientific research, comparative legal and comparative historical analysis, systems approach and the structural and functional approach. It is concluded that the policy of European countries in promoting science and innovation is mixed: along with direct state support governments also use various methods of "soft compulsion" to innovation of the economic agents through the use of various tax instruments. Currently designing efficient tax regimes in the field of innovation promotion is at the stage of "trial and error", however, this activity objectively contributes to the emergence of self-developing innovation ecosystems at the national and general European levels. Analysis of current changes in the policy of tax incentives for scientific research and innovation in the most innovative of the developed countries of Europe is of particular interest to the Russian tax theory and practice as well as management of processes of economic modernization of the country.
Sociodynamics, 2015-11
Yanik A.A., Popova S.M. - The problems of establishing mechanisms for social monitoring as part of the strategic management of socio-economic development of Russia pp. 117-143


Abstract: The subject of this study are positive and negative factors influencing prospects of becoming a nationwide independent system of social monitoring as an integral part of the strategic management of socio-economic development in the Russian Federation. Special attention is paid to the analysis of the current legal and institutional landscape within which there is a formation of different tools and technologies to enable the flow of social data in the process of making strategic and tactical decisions at all levels of government.To solve the set tasks were applied the general logical methods of scientific research, comparative legal and comparative historical analysis, system and structurally functional approaches.On the basis of the conducted analysis it is concluded that created by the bodies of state power mechanisms of feedback with society (in their present forms) were designed in the interests of a narrow departmental tasks, whereas for efficient functioning of the strategic management of social development requires the construction of the external contour of the independent social monitor. Formally, in Russia there are all necessary elements to build such a mechanism, but in practice there are a large number of objective and subjective barriers to the full implementation of this decision.
Cybernetics and programming, 2015-1
Borovskii A.A. - Prospects for the use of machine learning techniques in processing large volumes of historical data pp. 77-114


Abstract: In relation to the problems of development of information-analytical platform “The history of modern Russia” the author researches analytical capabilities of the modern methods of machine learning and perspectives of its’ practical use for processing and analyzing large volumes of historical data. The article reviews different strategies of applying machine learning techniques taking into account peculiarities of the studied data. Special attention is given to a problem of interpretability of different types of results, obtained using the machine learning algorithms, as well as the ability to recognize trends and anomalies. As a methodological basis of the research the author uses a theory of information systems, database theory, induction, deduction, comparative, systematic, formal logic, and other methods. The author concludes that the algorithms of machine learning can be used to effectively solve a large class of problems, related to the analysis of historical data, including finding hidden dependencies and patterns. It is noted that establishment of large-scale digital repositories of evidence of historical events makes it possible to examine and analyze the data as a specific time series allowing to investigate the change of state of the social system in time.
Genesis: Historical research, 2015-1
Yanik A.A. - Problems of Studying Russian History of the Late XXth - Early XXIst Centuries and Opportunities of Modern Digital Technologies pp. 1-17


Abstract: The subject of the research is the prospects of using modern digital technologies for solving theoretical, methodological and practical issues of studying Russian history of the late XXth - early XXIst centuries. The author of the article examines different challenges caused by the insufficient number of exploratory theories, contradictions in the databases, general crisis of theoretical grounds of history and etc. The author demonstrates opportunities of digital technologies to increase the quality of history researches of the recent past. Special attetion is paid to the questions of interpretability of results of quantitative researches. To achieve the research objectives, the author has applied the methods of the information theory, systems theory, analysis, synthesis, systematisation, comparative-historical, logical and other scientific methods. The main conclusion made by the author is that it would be certainly useful to create major information analytical platforms and digital research infrastructure in general to develop interdisciplinary researches in the field of history of modern Russia and improve scientific attitudes to that historical period. The author also defines the objective and subjective factors influencing the quality of researches in the field of Russian history of the late XXth - early XXIst centuries. For the first time in the academic literature the author points out the need for an 'impact-oriented' approach when developing and implementing resource intensive projects. 
Law and Politics, 2014-12
Yanik A.A. -


Genesis: Historical research, 2014-6
Buchatskii I.V. - Questions of Using Modern Digitical Technologies for Preservation and Processing of 'Big Historical Data' pp. 44-74


Abstract: Development of "the digital humanities" led (Digital Humanities) to understanding of limitation of traditional information technologies for storage and processing of historical data (in particular, mechanisms of relational DBMS). Plurality and a variety of historical sources, explosive growth of volumes of new data, including in a cluster of the social humanities, put in the forefront a problem of increase of efficiency of processing of scientific information in the distributed digital environment. These questions were investigated in relation to the tasks which arose in the course of implementation of the project on creation on the Internet of the interdisciplinary information and analytical platform "History of Modern Russia". The theory of information systems, the theory of databases were applied to the solution of research tasks, system, comparative, formal and logical and other scientific methods. The assessment of prospects of use of concrete technologies of modern programming at creation of information platforms in the field of the digital humanities is given. Key characteristics of the most effective technological decisions allowing to provide expansion of scales and increase in productivity of the operating History of Modern Russia platform for work with "big data" are formulated. The conclusion is drawn on expediency of application of NoSQL – decisions, language of the scenarios Pig Latin and a platform of the distributed calculations of Apache Hadoop MapReduce.
Genesis: Historical research, 2014-6
Buyanov S.S. - Prospects of Using 3D-Technology for Developing Information Analytical Platform 'History of Modern Russia' pp. 75-97


Abstract: Active application 3D - technologies in historical and culturological researches began more than a quarter of the century back. However, despite constant increase in number large-scale 3D - projects in Russia and abroad, the question of efficiency of use of methods of three-dimensional visualization and "virtual reality" from the point of view of achievement of the set scientific and educational objects is a subject for further reflections and discussions. As one of the main tasks of further development of the information and analytical platform "History of Modern Russia" created with assistance of RGNF (project No. 13-31-11003) is increase of popularity of this resource, in work are investigated various 3D - technologies and projects from the point of view of an assessment of prospects of realization of similar approaches for attraction of interest of audience to questions of national history of the end of XX-of the beginning of the XXI centuries. Methods of induction, deduction, abstraction, formalization, systematization, comparison, other analytical methods were applied to the solution of research tasks. Advantages and shortcomings of various 3D technologies - scannings, and also opportunities, achievements and the main problems connected with use of methods of three-dimensional visualization for the solution of problems of preservation, research, restoration and reconstruction of objects of historical and cultural heritage are analysed. The assessment of prospects of use 3D - solutions for further development of the information and analytical platform "History of Modern Russia" is given.
Theoretical and Applied Economics, 2014-4
Yanik A.A. - The analysis of current trends in the development of digital infrastructure for Humanities Research Abroad pp. 114-139


Abstract: The technological revolution has led to a "shift" of many activities including research to the Internet. The transition to a new economic model requires constant governments’ attention to the development of the digital environment which is favorable to the production of scientific knowledge. Advances in this area contribute to gain a competitive advantage on the global market. The European Union countries for several decades intensively have been implementing large-scale projects on the development of digital research infrastructure in different fields including the field of humanities. The analysis of this activity allows to define the strategy and tactics used to control the “digital science sector” abroad and identify patterns suitable for the Russian Federation. The methodological base includes the system, comparative, formal and logical, comparative legal and other scientific methods. The comparative analysis of the experience of foreign countries has permitted to reveal current trends in the development of digital research infrastructure in general and, in particular, in human studies. The study gives the evaluation of the role of digital research infrastructures in the modern "Internet economy" and presents a more precise periodization of the development of digital infrastructure for Humanities Research. The refined periodization takes into consideration the influence of external and internal factors that determine the content of the changes in this area. It is concluded that there is a strong need to improve the state strategy towards development of science in the modern "hyper-linked world."
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Official Website of NOTA BENE / Aurora Group s.r.o.
"History Illustrated" Website