Philosophical Thought
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Publications of Gusev Dmitrii Alekseevich
Philosophical Thought, 2020-1
Gusev D.A., Potaturov V.A. - Scientism and anti-scientism as two images of the philosophy of science, two worldviews, and two systems of life guidance of a person (historical-philosophical and general theoretical aspects) pp. 32-51


Abstract: The question on the polemics between scientism and anti-scientism being different sociocultural orientations and opposite worldview poles remains insufficiently covered within the modern philosophy of science. The object of this research is the controversy of scientism and anti-scientism as the two images and concepts of the philosophy of science. The subject is the worldview companions of scientism and anti-scientism, as well as the two systems of ideological, ontological and practical orientations of human and social existence built upon them. The goal of the article consists in identification of the two possible and opposite images of the philosophy of science, suggested by the concept itself, their interrelation, and establishment of worldview chain links beginning with scientism and anti-scientism, and clarification of opposing systems of life orientation of a person. One of the results of the conducted research consists in determination of two images of the philosophy of science and related to them scientism and anti-scientism, which are not only and not much different and in a worldview sense “neutral” sociocultural orientations, as the other way around, “loaded” from a worldview perspective intellectual positions, fairly conforming with the certain ideological paradigms, which in entirety and complementarity, form the two opposing worldviews and two systems of life guidance of a person.
Pedagogy and education, 2019-3
Gusev D.A., Potaturov V.A. - Analogy as a Didactical Means pp. 92-103


Abstract: The subject of the research is the cognitive interest of students as one of the most important terms of professional activity of a school teacher and university professor from both practical and theoretical points of view. The efficiency of teaching efforts in many ways depends on whether students are interested in the discipline or not and how well they understand it. The object of the research is analogies as one of the didactical means that can be used to raise the cognitive interest of students. In teaching activity, analogies are a specifically presented theoretical illustration of the material given by a teacher. The authors of the article analyze analogy as a didactical means used to teach such university disciplines as philosophy, philosophy of cognition, history and philosophy of science and logic. As a didactical means, analogies are viewed as illustration of concepts and interaction between these concepts, for example, empirical and theoretical levels, description and explanation, verification principle and falsification principle, cumulativism and anticumulativism, scientism and antiscientism, truth and interpretation. One of the main conclusions that is of special theoretical and practical importance and constitutes the novelty of the research is the proof of educational irreplaceability and pedagogical efficiency of such didactical means as analogy. In varied theoretical contexts, analogy helps to make complex things simplier, unclear things more understandable, complicated things more clearer and thus raise the level of the cognitive interest of students and motivate them for studying 'boring' disciplines. 
Philosophy and Culture, 2018-10
Gusev D.A., Potaturov V.A. - Science and religion in the context of polemics between scientism and anti-scientism pp. 28-44


Abstract: The relevance of this topic is defined by the new twist in worldview antagonism between religion and atheism, creationism and evolutionism, materialism and idealism, anti-scientism and scientism at the current post-secular stage of development of the Russian society. The object of this research is the correlation and interaction of heuristic capabilities of such forms of spiritual culture as science and religion. The subject is the reflection of correlation and interaction of heuristic capabilities of science and religion, as well as their role and meaning for human life and society from the perspective of such sociocultural paradigms as scientism and anti-scientism. The research methods include comparative analysis, inductive generalization, modus tollens, analogy of relations as a variety of mediated conclusion, intellectual experiment and model schemes of dimensional relations between the notions. The scientific novelty is defined by the author’s reference to the problem of correlation and interaction from the standpoint of scientism and anti-scientism, science and religion, empirical and theoretical levels of scientific cognition, technique and technologies as problematic criterion of the truth, enlightenment and education, “physical” and metaphysical questions, and capabilities of scientific worldview. One of the conclusions lies in the statement that science, due to its instrumental nature, cannot be a worldview, while scientism is such, conferring the glorified by it science a bad favor by imposing the expectations that it is not able and does not have to deliver. Due to this, the scientifically interpreted antagonism between science and religion may be re-interpreted by anti-scientism into the peaceful existence and even mutual complementarity.
Politics and Society, 2017-4
Gusev D.A., Potaturov V.A. - The debate about theological education in the context of clericalism in modern Russian society pp. 155-165


Abstract: The object of research is process of clericalism in modern Russian society and the main features of clericalism as a theoretical mirovozzrencheskii and socio-political platform. The subject of this research is relevant in the socio-political space of modern Russia, the discussion on theological education and the possibility of philosophical synthesis on the basis of the ideological platforms of post-secularism. The author examines the relationship between teologiska and clericalism, tracing the deep ideological and historical roots of the latter. Special attention is paid to the possibility of theological education, which supporters proclaiming their ideological platform postsecular thinking, secretly are in positions of clericalism, thus trying under the guise of deepening social democracy to impose on society a "new middle ages".As methods of research used the historical-philosophical reconstruction, and cross-cultural analysis, inductive generalization and conclusions on the conditional-categorical syllogism, the formal-logical methods utanovleny volumetric relations between the concepts, definition and division concepts, methods, simulation, and thought experiment. The main conclusions of the research is a set of assertions that theological education based on ideological platform of clericalism, provoking a blurring of boundaries between scientific and non-scientific knowledge and, to some extent, the loss to science and philosophy of his heuristically-rational capacity and status. In the current modern domestic political and socio-cultural situation the task of the representative of both scientific and philosophical knowledge, perhaps, is that, armed with the "Occam's razor" to try to "clean up" the problem field of modern Russian social Sciences and Humanities from "multiplied" clericalism "entity" to prevent the danger of its transformation into the "new maid" of theology.
Pedagogy and education, 2017-3
Gusev D.A. - The Teacher and the Scientist pp. 80-94


Abstract: The object of the research is the relationship between the definitions of teacher and scientist as well as realities behind these terms that are traditionally viewed as the crossing points. This is proved by the conjunction that is often used with these two terms in all kinds of contexts. The subject of the research is the particularities of a professional life of a teacher and a scientist that in many ways defines special personality traits of them both. The author of the article examines such aspects of the topic as the differences in a professional life of a scientist who creates new theoretical interpretations of natural and socio-humanitarian reality and a teacher who creates new forms and methods of explaining these interpretations to the students' audience. The researcher pays special attention to the analysis of the fact that a person who is a master of something is not necessarily a successful teacher of it. For example, someone who is fluent in a foreign language is not necessarily a great teacher of that language, a professional swimmer is not always a gifted swimming coach. To analyze the relationship between definitions of teacher and scientist and particularities of their professinal life, the author of the article has used such research methods as collection, observation and systematisation of empirical data, inductive generalisation, construction and analysis of schemes to describe the relationship between these terms, comparative analysis and mental experiment. The main conclusion of the research as well as the novelty thereof is the author's statement that the relationship between defnitions of teacher and scientist that is usually viewed as the crossing point can be also viewed as inconsistency or strict disjunction. Except for rare cases, scientist cannot be a successful teacher and teacher cannot be a successful scientist because they are in parallel although very closely related but completely different worldsas a result of different professional life, purposes and objectives of their activity, talents, abilities, skills, and personality traits. At the practical and institutional levels this conclusion can be expressed as a suggestion to replace traditional practice of 'consistent order' of academic credentials and degrees with the 'parallel order' by introducing some kind of a 'rank record' at higher schools. 
Philosophy and Culture, 2016-5
Gusev D.A. - Nil novi sub sole or Epicureanism as ancient positivism


Abstract: Is there progress in the history of philosophical thought? Have the previous philosophical ideas and systems within the coordinates of the current state of philosophy been overcome, or we should talk only about the multiple variations of one and the same, on the grand scale, content? The subject of this research is the Hellenistic philosophy in its correlation with the modern epistemological constructs. The object is the philosophical ideas of the Epicurean school considered as a remote predecessor of positivism of the brink of the modern era and contemporary history.  Special attention is given to the comparative and cross-cultural analysis of reflection of the theoretical knowledge on Epicureanism and positivism. The main conclusion consists in the complex of statements, according to which the philosophical constructs that most certainly historically belong to modern era and contemporary history, have been created and expressed approximately two thousand years earlier. The antique Epicureanism not just supersedes the positivistic tradition in the history of philosophy, the beginning of which is traditionally attributed to the origin of the modern era, but it also fairly thoroughly covers it, not yielding in its philosophical content to the “genuine” positivism.
SENTENTIA. European Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 2016-3
Gusev D.A., Potaturov V.A. - The problem of theological education and clericalization of modern Russian society pp. 64-73


Abstract: The object of this research is the process of clericalization of the modern Russian society, as well as the main features of clericalism as a theoretical worldview and sociopolitical platform. The subject of this research is the relevant discussion within the sociopolitical space of modern Russia on theological education and possibility of a worldview synthesis based on the ideological platform of postsecularism. The authors carefully examine the relations between theologism and clericalism, tracing deep ideological and historical roots of the latter. A special attention is given to the prospects of theological education, the supporters of which, proclaiming postsecular thought as their ideological platform, secretly stand on the positions of clericalism, thus attempting to obtrude the new Middle Ages upon the society under the disguise of social democracy. Among the main conclusions of the conducted research are claims that the theological education, which bases itself upon the ideological platform of clericalism, promotes blurring of the borders between the scientific and unscientific knowledge, and to a certain extent the loss of the heuristic-rational potential and status of science and philosophy. In the current Russian political and sociocultural situation, the task of the representative of both, the scientific and philosophical thought, perhaps lies in taking up the Occams razor and attempt to cleanse the problematic field of the modern Russian socio-humanitarian thought from essences that are exaggerated by clericalism, in order to prevent the danger of its transformation into the new maid of theology.
Modern Education, 2015-2
Gusev D.A. - To the Question of Rhetorical Culture of a Higher School Teacher pp. 141-176


Abstract: The article is dedicated to one of the topical issues of rhetorical culture of the teacher. The degree of efficiency of educational process is largely related to the level of rhetorical culture, or the culture of public speaking in teaching. One of the main reasons for the lack of motivation of students, their disinterest and neglect, poor performance training, ill-digested knowledge, underdeveloped skills, etc. is not a high level of the culture of teacher's public speaking, which prevents him from properly building and properly applying the learning material, making it clear and intelligible, lively and interesting, meaningful and useful for students. Frequently a complex and confusing way of teaching, his inconsistency and confusion, together with the dryness and dullness is a direct consequence of the lack of adequate level of rhetorical culture of the teacher. As a result, the training becomes ineffective, difficult and thankless process both for students and for teachers. This article defines the concept of rhetorical culture, discusses its criteria, most of which are in compliance with the professional activity of the teacher of the basic public speaking law - harmonizing dialogue; and the basic principles of its implementation, including the portrait of the audience, the principle of proximity of the proposed material, the principles of specificity, clarity, correctness of the public speaking, his speech richness and expressiveness, principles of the motion, emotion, pleasure, and the main parameters of the effective techniques of speech. Due to the relevance raised in the paper it can be interesting and useful to teachers of higher and secondary educational institutions both in theoretical and in practical aspects.
Philosophical Thought, 2015-2
Gusev D.A. - Liberalism, Orthodoxy and the National Idea in the Context of Transition and Crisis of the Modern Russian Society pp. 25-62


Abstract: The search for a new national idea in the era of transition and crisis of the modern Russian society is a burning question. The national idea is the "tower of Babel", in the collective construction of which a certain General social supertask or supergoal is realized, and that is why it can become a cementing foundation of society. Given the growing political and cultural influence of the role of the Orthodox Church, we can assume that Orthodoxy could become the basis for a new national idea. Orthodox Christianity is not likely to become a new national idea. It is not so much due to the multinational character of the Russian state as because due to the fact that one of the foundations of religious worldview is the idea of personal salvation that is inherently anti-collectivistic or individualistic. However market and liberal values as well as values of religious nature are all based on the same idea of "personal salvation", understood not only in mystic and supernatural measurement, buy in purely secular mental coordinates: personal career, personal enrichment, personal success; therefore the search for an adequate and effective system of values which could form a new national idea still remains a matter of future.
Philosophy and Culture, 2015-1
Gusev D.A. -


Philosophical Thought, 2014-9
Gusev D.A. - Scepticism as the Highest Form of Discursive Realism pp. 21-68


Abstract: The concept of realism is considered as a philosophical discourse in the context of which in the history of philosophy and science eyelids put and solved a complex problem of the attitude of our knowledge towards reality. The naive realism usually is understood as so-called natural installation of consciousness according to which the world is such what we see it, – the installation which is most of all coinciding with common sense, life experience and habitual expectations. It is possible to call the following and higher step of realism scientific realism: the science which is under construction on theoretical thinking doesn't trust common sense, is beyond empirical data, and allegedly gets into an essence of things, finding out as the world "actually" is arranged. However scientific theories and pictures of the world often are mutually contradicting, competing and change each other in the history of science owing to what the question of their relation at the objective world remains open. The last and highest step of realism is the philosophical realism which represents no other than scepticism. A methodological basis of research is the unity of etymological, logical and historical approaches, and also the principle of systemacity and some germenevtichesky receptions (in particular, interpretation and understanding). Also the method of historico-philosophical reconstruction which includes receptions primary (by consideration of sources) and secondary (at different attraction of literature on the studied subject) researches at selection of necessary material, methods of the immanent interpreting analysis (in the analysis of philosophical concepts of antique sceptics) and the komparativistsky analysis (when comparing epistemological ideas of the Hellenistic, or late ancient philosophy with modern concepts in the field of science philosophy) and a synthesis method as compounds of the interpreted material in new quality is used. Scepticism as the self-doubting doubt is a philosophical realism - the last and highest form of diskursivny realism after naive and scientific realism. One of essential differences of scepticism from traditional types and forms of philosophical thinking is that skeptical "the world picture" is essentially mobile and plastic, and, as a result, skeptical philosophical concepts usually don't lead to any certain results, but at the same time they are open for various points of view and therefore are alien randomly and unsubstantially, finally, to the adopted provisions, nothing "put outside brackets" thanks to what see correctness (as well as a wrongfulness) any philosophical idea owing to what scepticism is a search of truth, but not denial of possibility of its achievement as the skeptical philosophy is rather often interpreted. Antique scepticism made reopening of a question of the nature of truth and was original attempt of a reflection of theoretical knowledge, having in many respects anticipated modern not only epistemological, but also social and philosophical concepts.
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