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Publications of Gurevich Pavel Semenovich
Philosophy and Culture, 2017-3
Gurevich P.S. - Why do philosophical anthropologists criticize Aristotle? pp. 10-15

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0757.2017.3.22530

Abstract: This article attempts to respond to the critical assessments of Aristotle’s anthropological views. The ancient thinker is characterizes as a philosopher who stayed aside from comprehension of the problem of a human. On one hand, the multiplicity of discussed by Aristotle anthropological plots is impressive. On the other hand, he views a human as a natural creature, not expressing interest to the inner, introspective world of the human subjectivity. The representative of so-called nonclassical anthropology, assign to Aristotle the role of leader of the traditional anthropology that is deprived of the existential dimension. The author applies the method of historicism, placing Aristotle’s ideas into the context of ancient era. The article also analyzes the nonclassical philosophical anthropology, which allows implementing the method of comparative juxtaposition of the anthropological ideas. Fragmentary submersions into the texts of the ancient thinker were not accompanied by the attempt of integral comprehension of Aristotle’s views on human, his nature and essences, correlation between the reason and unreason, as well as connection between the corporeal and spiritual processes. Such approach towards the anthropological doctrine of Aristotle is also common to the Western literature. The scientific novelty of this work consists in the desire to give assessment to the anthropological doctrine of Aristotle as the leader of classical anthropology.
Philosophy and Culture, 2017-2
Gurevich P.S., Smirnov A.V. - Philosophy in the battle for survival (interview of the editor-in-chief of the journal, Professor P. S. Gurevich with Director of the Institute of Philosophy of RAS, Academician of RAS A. V. Smirnov) pp. 15-22

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0757.2017.2.22237

Abstract: The interview is dedicated to the work of the new director of the Institute of Philosophy of the Russian Academy of Sciences – Academician Andrey Vladimirovich Smirnov. At the present stage, science as a whole and particularly philosophy is undergoing the battle for survival due to decrease in funding. At the same time, scientific department must search the extra-budgetary allocations, and hold the course towards youthification of the staff composition. The Institute of Philosophy of the Russian Academy of Sciences has moved to a different building. It required strong effort of the director and the team to ensure the continual activity of all of the departments, preserve the traditions, and advance in all fields of the institute’s activeness. Answering the questions of the editor-in-chief of the journal “Philosophy and Culture”, A. V. Smirnov gives special attention to the actual achievements of the staff members over the recent year and favorable atmosphere of the Institute. The director of the Institute of Philosophy of RAS for the first time reasons on the specific events that took place throughout the year. However it is not a report, but rather an attempt to analyze the general direction of the activity of the Institute, its leading vector, and strategic plans. The Institute not just preserved the achievements of the previous years of work of this academic facility, but also ensured the breakthrough towards the considerable theoretical achievements that demonstrate the major role of philosophy in social life, as well as reveal the new opportunities of high reputation of the philosophy and philosophical reflection.
Philosophy and Culture, 2017-1
Gurevich P.S. - Nietzsche about the lust for power

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0757.2017.1.21687

Abstract: This article is dedicated to analysis of the phenomenon of power and lust for power in F. Nietzsche philosophical heritage. The German thinker spoke from the perspective of the philosophy of life. He believed that the excessive dedication to rationality has hurt the European humanity. Representative of this direction attempted to understand life from itself. They advocated on the side of feelings and instinct. Nietzsche wanted to make his book “Will to Power” a programmatic work. But he left just a number of notes and aphorisms, which formed in the course of preparation of the book to completion. However, the combination of sparse notes reveals an explicit cognition of such complicated phenomenon as power. All of the existing human knowledge as a whole is the determination of will to power. The article is firs within the Russian philosophical literature to make an attempt of interpretation of Nietzsche’s views upon power in form of a specific field of his heritage. Nietzsche claimed that will to power can be examines as human basic instinct, but at the same time was looking for opportunity to explain the lust for power as a need, feeling, and passion. In philosopher’s interpretation of passion, we can notice strive for differentiation of this phenomenon from instinct. Interpretation of the tyranny of spirit particularized, and as a final accord of this reasoning about power, Nietzsche names it a demon. It is the universal passion that used by the politicians for consolidation of despotism. The article presents a distinct phenomenology of power.  
Pedagogy and education, 2017-1
Gurevich P.S. - The Great Healer pp. 51-56

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0676.2017.1.21893

Abstract: The article is devoted to analyzing the heritage of a great Ancient doctor Galen. His achievements in the sphere of medicine and ethics are undoubtful. However, his name has been forgotten for many centuries. There have been many reasons for that. Firstly, Hippocrates was a more popular healer of those times. Every doctor who starts his or her professional path thinks of Hippocrates when they make the oath of Hippocrates. He is rightfully considered to be the founder of Greek medicine. There are even legends about him and his name is often remembered in philosophical and psychological dictionaries. It was Hippocrates who left a great message for all doctors saying that under no conditions a healer may do harm to a patient. Galen is a very important figure, too, however, he is often thought of as a successor and commentator of Hippocrates. Galen wrote 110 works, however, only one of his works 'On the fabric of the human body' (De humani corporis fabrica) was translated. Today the situation has changed. Many Galen's works have been published but they still need interpretation and commentary. The author of the present article bases his research in the principle of historicism which has allowed to show the important role of Galen in the history of ancient culture. Gurevich has also used the methods of philosophical anthropology and pedagogy for integral evaluation of Galen's heritage. Galen's works are a special type of literature. They cannot be called just 'medical works' but serve as a great illustration of the integral approach in general. There is a great philosophical, ethical and pedagogical depth in them. Experts underline that medicine had never been a true science before Galen and only Galen made it to be an integral theoretical and practical system. Starting from the 3th century, his teaching had become the prevailing system and medicine had acquired a solid basis that was developed in the next centuries.  
Philology: scientific researches, 2017-1
Gurevich P.S. - Ontopoetics pp. 12-17

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0749.2017.1.22353

Abstract: The article is devoted to a new conceptual term of literary studies, ontological poetics. Being a unique phenomenon of historical poetics, ontopoetics plays an important role in the process of analyzing historical and contemporary processes of artistic creativity. Ontopoetics can be also viewed as a special method of hermeneutical text analysis. Being related to the material world, ontological poetics is not limited to the analysis of reality. On the contrary, it tries ot connect the personal existence of a writer to the overall cosmic existence. These are spiritual contacts and ontological intuitions that help researchers to define the plot and image structure of a writing and understand specific symbols and metaphors of a writing. The author uses the principle of historicism demonstrating the development of ontological poetics in researches by L. Karasev and N. Shogentsukova. The author pays special attention to hermeneutics of artistic writings. The author tries to demonstrate what makes ontological poetics be of such high demand today. Ontological searches of poetry always address to philosophy. In its turn, philosophers have interest in poetry, too. Contemporary philosophers take a deep poetical image as a universal concept of existence. When concepts are helpless or insufficient, philosophers such as Martin Heidegger addresses to a poetical image, and Word acquires a deep ontological meaning. 
Philology: scientific researches, 2017-1
Gurevich P.S. - Encyclopedist and Analyst pp. 113-123

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0749.2017.1.22477

Abstract: The article is devoted to a great Russian scientist Alexander Veselovsky. The great value of his researches are doubtless. His encyclopedic knowledge and academic thoroughness stand to reason. However, not always great cultural achievements are timely and objectively evaluated. Historical breakages, 'time gaps' destroy academically successive expertise. As a result, the name of Alexander Veselovsky has been forgotten for quite a long time. Recently Andrey Veselovsky's works have been finally published thanks to Svetlana Levit's selfless labour and other specialists. In his research Gurevich applied the principle of historicism that allowed not only to preserve the process of origin of Alexander Veselovsky's research thought but also to reveal the value of such approach to analyzing the priceless heritage of that scientist. For the first time in the academic literature the author of the article provides evaluation of scientific discoveries of Alexander Veselovsky presented in his researches in 2006 - 2016 as part of the Russian Propulsion project. The author underlines the value and perfect structure of the edition, accurate division into chapters and volumes, rigorous recording of thematic criteria and academic preciseness of individual and general appraisals. The publishers tried to preserve the accuracy of details and statements that prove Alexander Veselovsky's conclusions. The edition also contains certain commentaries that provide a better insight into the great heritage of the great Russian scientist. 
Philosophy and Culture, 2016-12
Gurevich P.S. - To hear the meaning and the secret chord of the universe

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0757.2016.12.20964

Abstract: This material is associated with examination of the meanings and values of the European culture and characteristic to it controversies and antagonisms. The author leans on the two books, which came out this year in the list of publications by Svetlana Yakovlevna Levit – “Self-consciousness of Culture and Art. Western Europe and the United States” and “Art and Culture of Europe during the Renaissance and Modern Times. Compilation of Works in honor of Vsevolod Matveevich Volodarsky”. Special attention is given to the chrestomathy that represent the cultural-philosophical works of the Western thinkers. The author highlights the activity of Renata Aleksandrovna Galtseva, who throughout many years collects, comments, and studies the classical works of the Western philosophy of culture. She also reveals a great experience of the cultural-philosophical reflection. The prepared by her compilations significantly expanded the space of the research work in the area of philosophy during Soviet times. They have an undisputable value even today, since they allow defending the dignity of academic thought, responding to the spiritual-historical shifts, as well as achieving mobilization of the spirit of the European philosophy. The authors of the book “Art and Culture of Europe during the Renaissance and Modern Times” touch upon various cultural aspects of the aforementioned decades. They carefully and attentively examined different processes, topics and documents of this time, contributing into the study of cultural potential of the era. These works are not only the collection of the important texts, but also a meaningful cultural campaign that is called to defend the great acquisitions of the philosophical classics due to the transformation of cultural-philosophical ideas during the crisis era.
Philosophy and Culture, 2016-12
Gurevich P.S. - Phenomenology of religion as world relations

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0757.2016.12.21508

Abstract: The traditional to the sector of Professor V. K. Shokhin edition of almanac “Philosophy of Religion” (2014-2015 / edited by V. K. Shokhin. M.: Nauka – Vostochnaya Literatura, 2015. 590 p.) can be considered as precious heritage for the multidiscipline experts. It can be useful for the professionals in the area of philosophy, theology, religious studies, as well as wide audience of readers interested in philosophical-religious topic. Multiple foreign and Russian specialists were attracted to this work. The author uses the principle of historicism, which allows analyzing the spiritual experience of different eras, establish dialogues between the most remarkable representatives of the philosophy of religion. Almanac gives an idea about the status of large-scale research work in the area of philosophical knowledge. The chapter of almanac, which reveals the correlation between philosophy and mystical experience with consideration of the modern approaches and historical contexts, contains undoubtedly scientific novelty. This chapter is the arsenal of the in-depth ideas and revelations associated with mysticism. The publication presents polemics on the issues of historical orientation, as well as debatable topics of the modernity. The chapter dedicated to the translations of classical works can be truly considered priceless.
Psychology and Psychotechnics, 2016-12
Gurevich P.S. - Mind and Soul in Aristotle's and Plotin's Interpretation pp. 977-980

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0722.2016.12.23209

Abstract: Human had never been the corner stone of Aristotle's philosophy. However, as the previous researches of the author demonstrate, Aristotle was the ancient philosopher who was the father of classical philosophical anthropology. Very often thoughts and ideas of Aristotle that are so important for anthropology appeared in his other researches, for example, thoughts on syllogisms and etc. As we can say, thoughts on Mind were needed by the philosopher to classify categories, but inside that topic he proposed a very important idea about polysynthetism of Mind and that Mind has both human and divine nature. The author of the present article bases his research on the principle of historicism that allows to compare Aristotle's anthropological teaching with Plotin's thouhts about human. The author has also used the method of hermeneutical analysis of ancient philosophers' texts. Various thoughts of Aristotle about Mind, the human and the divine have never been viewed as part of philosophical anthropology. Referring to Aristotle's teaching about induction and deduction, those thoughts touched upon Human, too. Detailed analysis of Mind reveals particularities of human nature and at the same time bring the phenomenon of transcendence to the fore. By comparing Aristotle's and Plotin's teachings, it is possible to outline the teaching about soul and internal human world.
Philosophy and Culture, 2016-11
Gurevich P.S. - Can N. M. Karamzin be considered a philosopher?

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0757.2016.11.21192

Abstract: Thus article is dedicated to N. M. Karamzin as a philosopher. Indeed, first and foremost, he was a historian, as well as writer. However, he did not hesitate to refer to him as a philosopher. And in the author’s opinion, he has all the reasons to call himself a philosopher. N. M. Karamzin introduced the word “identity” into the Russian speech. It does not quite seem like a big achievement. In the XVIII – early XIX centuries many humanitarians were fascinated with creation of words. But the word “identity” invented by Karamzin, met the in-depth demands of the Russian, as well as European philosophy. The categorical discourse already contained the words “individual” and “individuality”. And now, it was the time to signify a person as a specific, highest measure, carrier of the high spiritual and social qualities. For the first time in history, Karamzin is characterizes as a philosopher. He did not just introduced a new word into philosophy, but the definition of “identity” reflected a drastic turn not only in Russian, but also European philosophy. After Karamzin, the Russian philosophy has referred to the topic of personality, which led to establishment of the personalist philosophy in Russia.
Psychology and Psychotechnics, 2016-11
Gurevich P.S., Stakhovskii E. - Carl Jung as an Esoteric (Conversation between Pavel Gurevich, the Editor-in-Chief, and Evgeny Stakhovsky, the Writer and the Frontman of the Popular Science Show 'Object 22' Broadcasted by Radio Mayak) pp. 883-889

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0722.2016.11.22621

Abstract: The conversation is devoted to Carl Jung as an Esoteric. The Swiss psychiatrist was deeply into the mystical spiritual tradition. Freud and Jung had different concepts of the unconscious, its structure and role in culture. Jung tried to research the mystical spiritual tradition and that is why he was interested not only in European but also Oriental culture. Jung assumed that one has to overcome a lot of difficulties to become spiritual. This is a special path not everyone can pass. As a rule, everyday consciousness is deeply rooted in our minds while the hidden sense of existence cannot be understood by the commonsense logic. The interlocutors emphasize Jung's deep interest in Oriental teachings and esoterics. Jung believed that the true mystery of the world could never be solved but could be only described symbolically as an abyss or transcendency. The main method used in the conversation is the comparison. The method allowed to compare Freud's and Jung's teachings and to demonstrate differences and similarities of these two schools of psychology. In this article the author also tries to give a full idea of Jung's esoterism. The author emphasizes the deep knowledge of Jung in Oriental teachings, in particular, Buddhism and Zen Buddhism. It is demonstrated that Buddhism applies pure symbols as a code to denote a long and difficult way towards the truth. Jung wrote a preface to the edition of the Tibetan Book of the Dead. The psychiatrist characterised it as a philosophical and religious guiding treatise for the alive. Based to Jung, that book is as important as The Bible, New Testament, Talmud and Quran. This is a sacred book not only in Tibet but also in other Eastern countries.  
Philosophy and Culture, 2016-10
Gurevich P.S. - “Audacious tunnels will be marching” (peer reviews)

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0757.2016.10.20438

Abstract: This article reviews the moral search of the Russian philosophy discussed within the framework of the two monographs: N. Bonetskaya “Spirit of the Silver Age. (Phenomenology of the era)” (M., St.Pb., 2015) and R. Galtseva “Era of Imbalance. Social and Cultural Events of the Last Decades” (M., St.Pb., 2016). Many problems that the Russian society is concerned about, remain to be in demand throughout several centuries. Special attention is given to the peer reviewed book “Spirit of the Silver Age”. In the author’s opinion, this century reflected, realized, and verbalized the new experience of the new soul. The article presents multiple names, verbal genres, and topics. It is noted that F. Nietzsche produced a significant effect upon the Russian philosophy. Many themes of the Silver Age are still being discussed in the Russian public consciousness: mutual correlation of the European and Russian philosophy, idea of the religious renovation, ideological dictatorship, and diagnostics of the social processes. Particular attention is paid to the Russian hermeneutics. The analysis of the works of N. K. Bonetskaya and R. A. Galtseva allow revealing multiple archetypes and plots that define the fate of Russia. For the first time, in the Russian literature this article discusses the intellectual image of the Silver Age, determines certain conceptual lines characteristic to the philosophical works of this century, considers the questions of mentality, as well as describes the portraits of the philosophers, thinkers, and other people in the world of art. In the material of R. A. Galtseva, the modern era is characterized as imbalanced, which lies in detection of the controversies between social and cultural development of Russia. The author presents various opinions of the ideological differentiations and theoretical confrontation, as well as gives characteristics to the religious renovation of Christianity, totalitarian ideologies, and modern conservatism and humanism.
Philosophy and Culture, 2016-10
Gurevich P.S. - Anthropological plots of Aristotle

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0757.2016.10.20782

Abstract: The author attempts to reveal the essence of the anthropological plots developed by Aristotle. Aristotle highlights the notions of “class” and “type”, and according to this pattern as an illustration names a man. He interprets human as the creature of nature that occupies its niche in living nature. At the same time, Aristotle underlines the social qualities of human, and considers him a social creature. That is how the classical scheme of interpretation of human is being formed. Human is perceived as a thing among other things, who deserves a particular niche in the universe. The article determines the main position of classical tradition originated by Aristotle. The author uses the principle of historicism that allows him comparing the classical and nonclassical traditions in understanding of a human. For the first time in Russian literature, the extensive analysis of the anthropological concept of Aristotle is given. The author examines the interpretations of such basic notions as human nature and human essence. The two philosophical paradigms in interpretation of human are being analyzed. It is demonstrated that the anthropology of the essence and substance does not allow characterizing the being of a man, which is based on freedom and responsibility of a man for his being. Aristotle’s concept is subjected to criticism in the modern discussions. However, it is important to consider that in the broad heritage of Aristotle, have been formed the principles of specific contemplation of human, which perhaps lost their meaning in nonclassical understanding of human.
Psychology and Psychotechnics, 2016-10
Gurevich P.S., Stakhovskii E. - The Sides of the Jungian teaching (Conversation between Pavel Gurevich, the Editor-in-Chief, and Evgeny Stakhovsky, the Writer and the Frontman of the Popular Science Show 'Object 22' Broadcasted by Radio Mayak) pp. 813-818

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0722.2016.10.22191

Abstract: The conversation between the frontman of Radio Mayak Evgeny Stakhovsky and the editor-in-chief Pavel Gurevich is devoted to the circumstances that led to the creation of Jung's analytical psychology. After their split with Freud which Jung took close to heart, Jung started to wonder why people pay so much attention to their everyday fuss and ignore their internal well-being and spiritual harmony. It is quite interesting that Jung denied Freud's theory of sexuality. Having wondered about the structure of human psyche, Jung introduced the concept of so-called 'collective unconscious'. Later he got that idea of psychological types and presented it in a form of a theory. The main method used in the conversation is historicism which allows to trabe back the stages of the development of analytical psychology and Jungian classification of personalities. The scientific novelty of the research is caused by the fact that interlocutors tried to demonstrate a significant contribution made by Jung to the development of psychoanalysis in general. Jung also described a 'gallery' of personalities with different adjusting mechanisms. Attribution of someone to this or that type of personality determines psychological traits, behavior patterns and even style of cognition. 
Philosophy and Culture, 2016-9
Gurevich P.S. - Can ideology be eliminated?

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0757.2016.9.20440

Abstract: This article analyzes whether or not ideology can be eliminated, as well as the factors that affect it. The criticism of ideology as the “false consciousness” has deep roots. This type of consciousness is characterized as a manipulatory, selfishly implemented by ruling circles into masses. Multiple social thinkers appeal to debunk the ideology, as well as eliminate it from the social practice. At the same time, we can more and more often come across the opinion that such phenomenon cannot be overcome and cut to a minimum. Ideology performs certain functions in society. As demonstrated by the historical experience, a clear cognitive analysis does not change anything in its fate. The author is first in the Russian literature to give the descriptions and analysis of the social functions of ideology. It is noted that the interpretation of the functions of ideology naturally depends on the general interpretation of ideology as a social phenomenon. Due to the fact that in the modern sociology and psychology the understanding of ideology as social life for the most part does not exceed the simple contraposition of the ideological approach to scientific, or what happens even more rare – the value approach, the objective regulations of functioning of ideology on various stages of social development often escape the researchers.
Psychology and Psychotechnics, 2016-9
Gurevich P.S. - The Range of Human Emotions

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0722.2016.9.21580

Abstract: The article is devoted to the problem related to classifications of emotions. Many famous philosophers including Aristotle, Descartes, Kant, Nietzsche and others paid attention to that issue. However, for many centuries emotional experience was viewed as part of cognitive activity but not autonomous expressions of human spirit. Philosophers cared more about the process of thinking rather than the process of feeling. That created obvious differences in interpretations of human and human mind. It can be believed that art covered that gap in philosophical and anthropological research. However, it is only the last decades that have shown the turn towards studying emotional but not cognitive activity of people. In his research Gurevich has used the methodology of philosophical anthropology. According to the author, the approach to the problem from the point of view of human nature may provide a better understanding of the problem. Psychologists divide feelings into basic and non-basic feelings. However, the range of emotions and feelings is quite different in different studies. Some researchers say there are 6 basic emotions, others speak aobut 7 basic emotions while it is almost impossible to actually count emotions. The author of the present article also discuss new classifications and gives a critical analysis of the above mentioned quantitative approach to studying the emotional world of human. For the first time in the academic literature the author emphasizes the conditional nature of the division of emotions into positive and negative ones. The author also focuses on such feature of emotions as their depth (intensity).  
Philosophy and Culture, 2016-8
Gurevich P.S. - Thought vs. feeling

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0757.2016.8.20280

Abstract: Multiple authors underline the discord between the thoughts and the feelings, which attributable to the modern man. It is noted that English-American analytical philosophy and continental existential philosophy are extremely disengaged. Moreover, the though and the feeling in the modern consciousness constantly try to rid themselves of each other. We can notice such discord in mundane, routine consciousness. What is the cause of this confrontation? How the mind can reunite with emotions? These questions are covered in the article. The author actively uses the achievements of analytical philosophy and existential experience, as well as applies the method of historicism, which allows demonstrating the dynamics of correlation between the thought and the feeling in different eras. This work contains the analysis of different concepts associated with the problem of though-feeling interrelation. A critical assessment is given to the projects which do not consider the achievements of analytical psychology. The solution to this problem consists in overcoming of these two extremities.  Of course the noticeable discord between the thought and the feeling is needed to be overcome, but at the same time, the abstract reasoning on sentimental upbringing does not take into account difficulties inherent to human psyche. The author suggests an opinion that not all abilities of a specific human can be unequivocally developed.
Psychology and Psychotechnics, 2016-8
Gurevich P.S. - Human Tears, Oh Human Tears... (Phenomenology of Emotional States)

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0722.2016.8.20985

Abstract: In his article Gurevich shows that modern European culture is mostly rational. Historically, already in Ancient philosophy, human has been evaluated as a thinking being in the first place. Max Weber underlined that rationality is the destiny of Western civilization. It was the place where science and philosophy arose. The desire of European philosophers to uncover all aspects of reasoning that sublimates human and guarantees his well-being created suspicion towards the emotional side of human life. Throughout centuries human passions have been considered to be a great harm and impediment for the mind. That led to the devaluation of the role of emotional life in our culture. The author of the present article has used the methodology of the philosophy of culture that demonstrates the variety of mental skills and values and life styles. The research is also based on basic provisions of Jungian philosophy. For the first time in the academic literature the author conducts a psychological expertise of different philosophical texts. The author enters into polemics with Mikhail Epstein who has written the book 'From Knowing to Creating' and believes that integral personality is closely related to feelings. Giving a high appraise of the research in general and supporting Epstein's orientation at rehabilitation of the role of emotions and feelings in philosophy and psychology, the author of the present article argues against considering one of the functions described in Jungian classicification to be universal. According to the author, all functions are equal in Jungian classification, however, as elements of the psychological structure of an individual these functions are subject to the principle of hierarchy. 
Philosophy and Culture, 2016-7
Gurevich P.S. - Abundance of the weighty thoughts (Critical commentary to Professor E. Y. Solovyev’s essay “Philosophy as Criticism of Ideologies” at the first session of the seminar of the Institute of Philosophy of the Russian Academy of Sciences, June 7 of 2016)

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0757.2016.7.19641

Abstract: This article is dedicated to the role of philosophy as an opposing instance with regards to ideology. This topic has a long history behind it, during the course of which the various outlooks upon this issue have been establishing. The discourse “criticism of ideologies”, having become relevant during the Enlightenment era, reflected the most popular commentary on this subject. The theory of interest, according to which reasoning of a person is defined by its instinctive or conscious interests, was developing within the theory of intentional deception. Over two centuries have passed since that time. A powerful intellectual movement aimed at criticism of ideology, irrevocably assigned to it a status of “false consciousness”.  Basing himself on the fundamental ideas of Solovyev, who presented an extensive program for debunking the ideology at a methodological seminar in the Institute of Philosophy, the author attempts to expand the frameworks of discussion on this topic.  For the first time in Russian philosophy, the author suggests a thought that the “criticism of ideology” as a certain research paradigm aimed at its exposure, outlived itself. A purely cognitive rejection of this phenomenon is not being accompanied by the versatile examination of the social phenomenon itself – ideology. As a result, the perception of ideology as an illusion became just the first level of thoughts on the matter.
Psychology and Psychotechnics, 2016-7
Gurevich P.S. - John Locke's Error (Or Whether Memory Can Be the Criterion of Identity?)

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0722.2016.7.20719

Abstract: The article is devoted to the critical analysis of John Locke's concept who was one of the first in the history of European philosophy to raise the problem of human identity. According to the author of the article, Locke's work 'An Essay Concerning Human Understanding' presents an attempt to develop the concept of personality. This is the concept that appeared to be the key concept in Locke's following thoughts on what guarantees an integrity of human self-identity. Locke believed that memory was the guarantee of individual's self-identity. According to Locke, this is memory that allows human to imagine himself in different places and at different times. This is quite a philosophical point of view, however, it was not supported by the following development of psychology. In his research Gurevich has used methods of historical and philosophical research. This has allowed him to describe the role of Locke's concept and its insufficiency for further development of Locke's ideas in psychology and philosophy. For the first time in Russian academic literature John Locke's concept of personal identity is critically analyzed taking into account following discoveries in the spheres of philosophy and psychology. The author demonstrates that memory does not have a universal ability to develop one's personality. Memory is selective, thus it is more likely to prove the theory of forgetting rather than to develop the core of personality. In his research article Gurevich also provides a psychoanalytical interpretation of Pavel Lungin's movie The Island. Based on Gurevich, John Locke's error is his statement that human memory is flawless. Flaws of memory are what guarantees security of personality. 
Philosophy and Culture, 2016-6
Gurevich P.S. - New human ontology

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0757.2016.6.19496

Abstract: Is there a possibility for a new human ontology? Is it necessary to go back to the basic elements and meanings pertaining to human ontology? How relevant is the question raised by Max Scheler that in all abundance of our knowledge about the world, the least is about ourselves, thus there is a need for development of a new anthropology, a new doctrine on human being? Or there is no such situation or necessity in the new anthropology? This article contains the answers to these questions. The author compares the classical and non-classical versions of philosophical anthropology, and dwells on the historical fate of philosophical anthropology. The article suggests a thought that among other philosophical disciplines, in essence, only the philosophical anthropology has lost its subject – a human. It resulted in a paradoxical situation – this block of knowledge split into multiple “anthropologies”. The author proposes to develop a new anthropological ontology through apprehending the scattered knowledge on human being. The interpretation of the key notions of human, consciousness, and identity is being compared within the classical and non-classical anthropology.
Psychology and Psychotechnics, 2016-6
Gurevich P.S., Stakhovskii E. - Stanislav Grof's Karmic Insights (conversation between Pavel Gurevich, the editor-in-chief, and Evgeny Stakhovsky, the writer and the frontman of the popular science show 'Object 22' broadcasted by Radio Mayak)

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0722.2016.6.20558

Abstract: The material posted in the Journal contains the conversation between the writer and the frontman of the popular science show 'Object 22' broadcasted by Radio Mayak Evgeniy Stakhovsky and the editor-in-chief of the Psychology and Psychotechnics Journal professor Pavel Gurevich regarding one of the five main schools of world psychology, transpersonal psychology. Radio Mayak listeners often ask questions about transpersonal psychology. They are interested how that word-combination was created, what the main ideas of transpersonal psychology are and what Holotropic Breathwork means. The subject of transpersonal psychology is 'transpersonal' or 'suprapersonal' states of consciousness. The main method used in the conversation is historicism. The interlocutors trace back the sources of transpersonal psychology rooted in psychoanalysis and humanistic psychology. It is demonstrated that transpersonal psychology substantiates the importance of spiritual aspects of psyche. It is also noted that throughout the history all cultures except for that of European industrial society have highly valued spiritual states of consciousness.  The difference between transpersonal psychology and humanistic themes is that transpersonal psychology aimed at overcoming the borders of the previous subject field set by the problems of self-actualization, creativity and humanistic psychotherapy and pedagogics. 
Philosophy and Culture, 2016-5
Gurevich P.S. - Freud endless and shimmering

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0757.2016.5.19149

Abstract: This article is dedicated to the 160th anniversary of Sigmund Freud. On May 6, 1856 the world welcome one of the most renowned and successful researchers of human psychics Sigmund Freud. His name was firmly written into psychology, philosophy, and medicine. Paradoxicality of this consists in the fact that this person was not a physician in natural sense although he received medical education. Moreover, he was not a philosopher, and according to the word of Carl Jung, he did not possess a necessary philosophical competence, and had a rather skeptical attitude towards this area of knowledge. But at the same time, Freud became a founder of an independent philosophical direction – psychoanalysis. None of the philosophical direction of the previous century has passed by this name. Many philosophers rejected his ideas, but most often they continued to expand his discoveries. Freud was not a psychologist, but his name is associated with a radical reformation within the humanitarian knowledge – emergence of one of the five directions of the world psychology. As a clinical psychologist, he introduced into the world practice the principles of healing, which gained universal recognition. The author bases on the principle of historicism, attempting to evaluate Freud’s contribution into the humanitarian cognition, according to the impact of his doctrine upon the modern science and culture. The article attempts to demonstrate the importance of Freud’s heritage for many areas of modern science, as well as to reveal the greatness and limitation of his doctrine, considering the discoveries that gained recognition in the late XX – early XXI century. Quite often we can hear that Freud’s doctrine has outlived itself. In this regard, we should note the approach of J. Lacan, who was trying to preserve the psychoanalytical tradition which was under a threat in the middle of XX century. The author focuses his attention on the main achievements of Freud’s concept/
Psychology and Psychotechnics, 2016-5
Gurevich P.S., Stakhovskii E. - Freud the Great and the Bottomless (conversation between Pavel Gurevich, the editor-in-chief, and Evgeny Stakhovsky, the writer and the frontman of the popular science show 'Object 22' broadcasted by Radio Mayak)

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0722.2016.5.20271

Abstract: The material posted in the Journal contains the conversation between the writer and the frontman of the popular science show 'Object 22' broadcasted by Radio Mayak Evgeniy Stakhovsky and the editor-in-chief of the Psychology and Psychotechnics Journal professor Pavel Gurevich. On May, 6 it will be 160 years since the birth of a great researcher Zigmund Freud. Being the founder of psychoanalysis as a philosophical and psychological school, he had a great influence on philosophy, sociology, philosophical anthropology, art, medicine and other associated sciences. His views drew controversial responses of the global cultural community. Freud became the founder of a special philosophical school called Psychoanalysis. At the same time, he is also the father of psychoanalysis as one of the five main branches of psychology. The main method used in the conversation is historicism which allows to demonstrate the place of psychoanalysis in the history of world psychology. This principle also allows to analyze the radical nature of Freud's psychological concept. Evaluations of Freud's heritage are often contradictory. It is widely accepted that Freud influenced nearly all philosophical schools of the last century. Some ideas of psychoanalysis received recognition and further development in other psychological schools and movements. Existentialism is an example of it. From time to time Freud's main conclusions were criticized. However, when doing so philosophers always described both differences and similarities of theories. Freud made a revolution in psychology by describing the role of unconscious in human behavior and thinking which changed the vector of psychology in many ways. 
Philosophy and Culture, 2016-4
Gurevich P.S. - The 100th issue of the journal

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0757.2016.4.18691

Abstract: This article is dedicated to the analysis of the general scientific policy of the journal “Philosophy and Culture” as this is the 100th issue of this journal. The author examines the development of the journal from its very first issues until present, marking the main milestones in its path. Over the years, the publication that is being issued under the authority of Institute of Philosophy of the Russian Academy of sciences became a platform for the philosophical discourse for the scholars from various regions of the country – from Astrakhan to Odessa, from Belgorod to Vladivostok. The council of editors consists from the prominent Russian and foreign researchers. The journal was able to establish the permanent connections with a number of higher education facilities throughout the country – in Barnaul, Perm, Nizhny Novgorod, Vladivostok, and others. The author uses the methods of historical-philosophical research, as well as the abilities of hermeneutic analysis of philosophical texts presented in the articles of the journal. This work is first to examine the difficulties of the philosophical periodicals in Russia. The author underlines the hardships faced by the historical-philosophical process in our country. The attempts to “limit” philosophy have been noticed yet in the Imperial Russia. There have been tragic pages in the history of Russian philosophy after the Bolshevist Revolution. Over the recent years, the officials “pressed” philosophy in the educational system, as well as narrowed down the minimum requirements for the Candidate degree. Special attention in this article is given to the substantiation of the main directions of the journal during these years, as well as the future prospects of its existence.
Psychology and Psychotechnics, 2016-4
Gurevich P.S. - Jubilees and their Meanings

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0722.2016.4.19420

Abstract: Moscow Regional Research Clinical Institute named after M. V. Vladimirski is going to celebrate its 240th jubilee. The date itself evokes the sense of belonging to history which does not only preserve memorial practice but also encourages to think over the current problems of the Russian society. The present research article is devoted to the analysis of the main milestones in the development of the aforesaid Institute, in particular, undeniable achievements. Over the past years the Institute has made an evident break through in theoretical and practical research. Based on the historicism principle, the author of the article describes the reasons for such significant dynamism of the Institute development. According to the author, it would be impossible to run effectively such a large and multiple-discipline institute without being based on humanistic traditions and long-decade experience. For the first time in the Russian academic literature the author analyzes the research and clinical practice of such a large institute as Moscow Regional Research Clinical Institute. The author demonstrates that throughout the history of its development, Ekaterina's Hostical team (current Moscow Regional Research Clinical Institute) has been playing an important role in the development of Russian public health service and medical science. Today 1200 doctors, over 100 professors and doctors of science, 300 PhDs, 4 members of the academy and a corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 9 honored scientists and 23 laureates of state prize work at the Institute.  
Psychology and Psychotechnics, 2016-4
Gurevich P.S. - Man's Search for Niche (Review)

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0722.2016.4.19738

Abstract: The meaning of the present research is to characterize the newest trends in philosophical anthropology. The author of the article analyzes the results of the two original projects related to the philosophical understanding of human, the international anthropological journal 'Diogenes' Lantern' and humanities almanac 'Human.ru'. The synergetic anthropology project is presented by the central Russian philosophers headed by S. Khoruzhy. They effectively adopt the most recent findings of European philosophy. Meanwhile, this is a very original and significant project. It relates to ancient spiritual practices, at the same time, their searches conform to the logic of the modern academic discourse. The purpose of the present research is to extend the limits of the philosophical understanding of human. The second project is inspired by the searches for new grounds of human existence. It is referred to a new form of philosophy about human. The author uses the methods of philosophical anthropology that have been developed throughout the history of its development. At the same time, he compares the focus of classical philosophy to the modern stage of the development of views on human as a special form of existence. For the first time in the Russian philosophical literature the author views the current state of philosophical anthropology as a special discipline about human. The author of the article underlines the fundamental renovation of the modern conceptual framework of philosophical anthropology. The author introduces new concepts such as breaking through, singularity, and anthropological practices. He also provides his evaluation of modern attempts to find new grounds and fundamental criteria of human existence. He notes that philosophical anthropology still plays the role of a 'servant' to rational classical metaphysics of the Enlightenment epoch. He also outlines the ways to overcome crises in philosophical anthropology. 
Philology: scientific researches, 2016-4
Gurevich P.S. - 'Shall Hear Your Enchanting Voice' (About the Creative Work of a Russian Philosopher and Writer Mikhail Gershenzon)

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0749.2016.4.20817

Abstract: The article is devoted to the review of the three collections of selected works that included works of a well-known philosopher and writer Mikhail Gershenzon. These are 'Selected Works. The Triadic Image of Perfection', 'Selected Works. Notes on History' and 'Selected Works. Images of the Past'. Mikhail Gershenzon played an unvalued role in the development of Russian culture. His rich intellect, doubtless literary talent and gift for philosophical research made him a distinguished figure of Russian culture. Mikhail Gershenzon was particularly interested in the history of the modern period in the Russian society development over the past three or four generations. The philosopher was indeed a master of individual analysis. In a sense, Mikhail Gershenzon can be considered to be part of Russian history of psychology because he was not only a historian but also a genious psychologist. His gifts allowed him to compare different epochs and find common features and traditions of different periods of Russian history. His works published in the above named collections also prove that he can be considered to be one of Russian philosophers. In his research Gurevich has used the principle of historicism that was so often used by Mikhail Gershenzon. The method allowed to compare historical epochs and define rules and patterns of social development. These publications gave an opportunity to analyze an enormous contribution of Mikhail Gershenzon to the development of Russian culture and thus was undoubtedly a very important project carried out by a famous researcher and editor Svetlana Levit. It certainly was such an effort to find and publish these three collections of selected works. As a result, publications provide us with broad materials that enable an adequate evaluation of Mikhail Gershenzon's versatile activity. Kogan's words that 'perhaps, analysis of his achives and works will bring an insight into one of the most interesting problems of social studies and psyhology' actually came true. Many of Gershenzon's works have already become a rarity. The aforesaid collections also contain articles written by Russian philosophers and modern researchers V. Proskurina and Yu. Sineoky about Mikhail Gershenzon. 
Philology: scientific researches, 2016-4
Gurevich P.S. - Nikolay Karamzin's Language

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0749.2016.4.21364

Abstract: The article is devoted to the great contribution of Nikolay Karamzin to the reformation of the Russian language. Many words created by Nikolay Karamzin are now commonly use4d. However, the process of their creation was not so easy or socially recognized. It is partly due to the competition in word invention that was famous in the 18th - early 19th centuries and performed by not only poets such as V. Grediakovsky or M. Lomonosov but also historians and literary critics. Each word-forming experiment was based on a certain ideological or philosophical tradition. It was rather difficult and risky to look into the future of the langauge and linguistic tendencies under the conditions of ideological disputes of those times. Nikolay Karamzin's achievements were faultless from this point of view. Certain words used by him did not only enrich the Russian language but also promoted serious philosophical research. The author of the present article uses the principle of historicism that allowed to demonstrate not only the results of the word polemics of those times but also the process of their painful and difficult development. Analyzing Nikolay Karamzin's achievements in the Russian langauge reformation, the author tries to show the change in linguistic preferences of Nikolay Karamzin, to reveal failures of some experiments and define general cultural attitudes and trends in the Russian language improvement typical for that time. According to the author of the article, due to Nikolay Karamzin's 250th jubilee many his achievements in the spheres of philosophy, history and literature have been finally appreciated and described. As for Nikolay Karamzin's language and linguistic tendencies, this part of his heritage still needs to be researched further. 
Pedagogy and education, 2016-4
Gurevich P.S. - Aristotle On the Soul

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0676.2016.4.21569

Abstract: The article is devoted to the analysis of an unfinished treatise of Aristotle 'On the Soul'. The aforesaid treatise made a significant influence on the historical fate of psychology. In fact, Aristotle became the founder of scientific psychology identifying soul with psyche. The ancient philosopher believed that soul was the reason and beginning of a living body. Assuming that the essence defines existence of each item, Aristotle interprets life as the essence of living creatures. The philosopher devoted a significant part of the treatise to criticizing misconceptions of soul. Many provisions of his philosophy are beyond doubt. Mental processes are actually related to physical processes. Soul is not a harmony, in fact, because mental life is full of contradictions and collisions. According to Aristotle, mind is not identical to body and cannot be interpreted as an organic function. In his article Gurevich uses the principle of historicism which allows to demonstrate the development of principles associated with the development of views on mental processes. Aristotle's views on the nature of soul played an important role in the creation and development of psychology. However, Gurevich also shows that Aristotle's philosophy of soul displaced other interpetations and definitions of soul that had certain heuristic potential. This can be said about Plato's teaching in particular. In fact, Aristotle's concept of soul and Plato's concept of soul never synthesized. Reduction of soul to psyche only impoverished the essence and definition of soul and narrowed the concept of human inner life. Today's discoveries made by neuroscientists and transpersonal psychologists prove that Aristotle's concept of soul is rather narrowed. 
Philosophy and Culture, 2016-3
Gurevich P.S. - Hegel’s interpretation of labor

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0757.2016.3.18283

Abstract:  This article presents the analysis of the phenomenon of labor in Hegel’s heritage. It is suggested that the apology of labor takes it roots in the works of Hegel. His doctrine represents a culmination of the German classical philosophy in solution of the question on the relation on the active conscience to the external world, in other words in solution of the question about practice. This concept has formed under the influence of the English political economy of Adam Smith on one hand, and the philosophy of Johann Gottlieb Fichte and Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph von Schelling on the other. The key towards understanding Hegel’s views upon practice is his interpretation of labor. The crucial moment of his concept of not only theoretical, but practical self-conscience, consists in the development of the conscious side of human activity. Practical attitude of a human towards the world for Hegel – is the key towards understanding the development of society. The author bases on the history of philosophy. Special attention is given to the theory of anthropogenesis. The initial point of Hegel’s concept about the activity of conscience is a living being, which has yet not become a human, but gradually overcomes its natural being and separates from the vital world. According to Hegel, it has a desire to cognize its essence through other beings, and for this purpose it needs to overcome only the natural existence. This rejection is a condition for transformation of a natural being into social. It means that a human attains its essence through labor, which expresses the liberation from nature and return to it as a result of attaining by human of its essence.  
Psychology and Psychotechnics, 2016-3
Gurevich P.S. - Crazy Madness

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0722.2016.3.19112

Abstract: The article is devoted to the typical tendency of our days which the author calls 'psychiatrization of humanities knowledges'. Based on clinical expertise, many authors describe individuals according to this approach. In particular, one of the authors publishing his articles in the Psychology and Psychotechnics Journal F. Faritov makes an assumption that there are the two poles of philosophical activity. These poles are represented by 'schizoid' and 'hysteriod' researchers. Socrates and Nietzsche are considered to be schizo-hysteriods. There is a great variety of features attributable to schizoid personality in psychoanalytical and psychiatric researches. Still, many researchers deliberately reduce these features to so called 'formal behavior' based on Kretschmer's and Lichko's Inventories. The author of the present article bases his research on classical philosophical and psychiatric researches. He pays attention to Karl Jaspers' warning that there are certain methods that cannot always be used in philosophical research. For the first time in the academic literature the author of the article critisizes psychiatrization of humanities knowledge. The author traces back the origin and development of that tendency in Michel Foucault's works. Without going against recent findings of philosophical anthropology, the author, however, does not agree with the opinion that the previous 'conditional' psychological norm shoudl be replaced with the 'conditional' psychiatric norm. According to the author, we should seriously rethink this tendency to make an individual look like a madman. Being opposed to classical Homo Sapiens, Homo Insanus is very unlikely to be associated with a psychiatric patient. Great part of the article is devoted to the author's arguments against 'blashemous' psychiatric analysis of such great philosophers as Socrates, Kant and Hegel. 
Philology: scientific researches, 2016-3
Gurevich P.S. - The Influence of Psychoanalysis on the Fate of the Novel

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0749.2016.3.20559

Abstract: In this article Gurevich tries to track back the influence of psychoanalysis on the fate of the novel in the XXth century. The transformation of the novel as a genre at the beginning of the last century was closely related to the countercultural movement against the Victorian system of values. The Victorian era was characterized by the evangelistic-puritan ethics, utilitarianism and liberalism, hypocrasy and dictate over the erotic behavior. However, the Victorian era was replaced by the other system of life and practical attitudes. The new system was called anti-Victorian. In the beginning new values were established in the everyday life and way of thinking but later started to have a significant influence on arts. This is how the first movement of the Pre-Raphaelites appeared in the British culture during the Victorian era. However, the most significant changes happened in the sphere of novel writing. In his research Gurevich used the principle of historicism which allowed him to compare two eras in the history of the Great Britain and describe similarities and differences therein. For the first time in the Russian academic literature the transformation of the novel as a genre that happened at the beginning of the last century is compared to the origin of Freudism and the strong influence of Freudism on artistic intelligentsia. The artistic process itself happened to be influenced and changed by the new values. British philosopher Herbert Spencer described philosophical grounds for the new sense of values towards making hedonistic attitudes 'legal'. This is how the transformation of the novel began and from that moment on the novel was aimed against hypocracy. Changed involved not only the plot. Many traditions that characterised the poetics of the novel changed, too. The novel started to have a more open nature and the novel did not have a previously estabilshed scheme any more.  
Pedagogy and education, 2016-3
Gurevich P.S. - There are People Who Enjoy Murdering

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0676.2016.3.20664

Abstract: The article is devoted to the problem of human aggression. There are a lot of philosophical and psychological literature sources discussing whether human can be considered to be a murder by nature. As modern researches prove, humans do not have a genetic predisposition to death. The author believes that it is necessary to appeal to social and cultural factors in order to clarify the issue. Initially human believes himself to be a resemblance of animal. This belief is still peculiar for so called 'hunting nations' or nations who follow archaic traditions. Has culture made human to lose these 'animal-like' qualities? Many researchers try to answer this question. The question is whether we can actually assume that each human is a potential murderer or it is true for only some representatives of human society? In his research Gurevich has used neuroscientific, genetic and sociobiologic findings. Special attention is paid to cultural and ethnographic researches. In this article Gurevich gives a theoretical criticism of sociobiological researches that explain human's genetic predisposition to murder. Based on modern genetic researches, the author proves that humans have no genetic predisposition to murder. Many paradoxes of human behavior become obvious if we study sociocultural factors of people's lives. According to the author, the theory 'human murderer' is not only pseudoscientific but also harmful because it leads to such social and political consequences as racism. People are not monkeys, neither they are angels marked with the original sin. According to the author, human aggressive behavior, even violence, demonstrates their need in love.
Philosophy and Culture, 2016-2
Gurevich P.S. - Human triumph

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0757.2016.2.17597

Abstract: This article reviews a remarkable monography by V. I. Samokhvalova “Superhuman: image, metaphor, and program” (M., 2015), in which the author based on the significant philosophical material attempts to substantiate Nietzsche’s idea of Übermensch (superhuman). This problem is examined in traditional doctrines, various religious systems, myths, and modern cultural perceptions. It is evident that this topic has an outstanding background story, but at the same time it attained many stereotypes, free interpretations, and various meanings. Today, the notion of superhuman could be understood very differently – from the idea of perfection of a human, all the way until human brain replacement with a silicon chip. The author bases on an extensive philosophical tradition, including the modern transhumanism, and also applies hermeneutic method that allows revealing hidden meanings in the well-known philosophical texts. Even recently, with regards to a human, we could hear exceptionally funeral motifs. Philosophers were ecstatically describing the human demise not only as a topic of philosophical anthropology, but also as a flickering anthropological given. Human died not only as an animal, but also as a historical creature, human dissolved in everything that surrounding him – nature, society, technologies. However, the topic of a living, bodily, and almost immortal human gradually became evident in even post-modernistic philosophy.
Philosophy and Culture, 2016-2
Gurevich P.S. - From Hegel to Marx, from Marx to Baudrillard

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0757.2016.2.17883

Abstract: The subject of this research is the transformation of perceptions about labor from Hegel to Baudrillard. The article illustrates that Marxist interpretation of labor was based on the Hegel’s analysis of this phenomenon – that a man finds his essence in labor, which expresses release from nature and return to it. According to Marx, the main characteristic of people is their ability to embodiment (objectification) and realization of themselves in the product of their work; only by the virtue of this act of objectification, individuals find themselves capable of grasping their efforts and acquire self-conscience. Thus, the ability to voluntarily experience your own labor as a process of self-realization, forms a decisive prerequisite for good life. But this prerequisite is being destroyed by the establishment of capitalistic way of production, because wage labor deprives persons of the ability to control their work. Capitalism in such way presents a social form of life that opposes a man to its essence, by depriving him of the hope for a good life. Scientific novelty consists in the fact that the classical interpretation of the works of Hegel and Marx is being compared to the modern and post-modern views upon transformation of the entire social reality. Such outlooks allow looking at our reality from a complete different angle. Particularly, according to the opinion of Baudrillard, labor remains a human need, but in a different sense; it becomes equivalent to leisure.
Pedagogy and education, 2016-2
Gurevich P.S. - The Finitude of Human and Boundaries of the Mind

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0676.2016.2.19419

Abstract: The present article provides a review of Karl Jaspers' book 'Kant: Life, Research and Influence' published by the Kanon+ Publishing in 2014. This book is twice as valuable. Firstly, it is beileved to be a great contribution to Kantian studies. Meanwhile, it can tell us about the philosophical heritage of Karl Jaspers himself. Kant was one of Karl Jaspers' favorite philosophers. Karl Jaspers believed him to be an original philosopher and therefore mentioned Kant's name in his doctor's thesis several times. Those references were priceless for Kantian studies. In his book Jaspers developed and systematized fragmentary remarks about Kant's achievements. In his research Gurevich has used the historicism principle which allowed him to demonstrate the role of Kant's ideas in the history of philosophy. The author of the present article has also conducted the comparative analysis of Jaspers' two researches written by him in different times, 'General Psychopathology' and 'Kant'. In his article Gurevich has also touched upon different aspects of Kantian studies. In the aforesaid book Karl Jaspers described details of Kant's life that allowed to provide a better insight into the development of Kant's views and his path towards critical philosophy. The structure of Kant's cognition is also described as well as the mind and all forms of mind. The 'Kantian' reason is also characterized. It is very important that Jaspers went beyond cognitive issues. He introduced Kant's understanding of politics and history to the readers. Finally, he also shared his critical views of Kant's philosophy and underlined the historical place of Kant and his influence on the following stages of philosophy.
Psychology and Psychotechnics, 2016-2
Gurevich P.S. - Imagination and Fantasy

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0722.2016.2.18646

Abstract: The article is devoted to imagination as a special gift that only human may have. The author of the article reflects on the amazing ability of human to create fantastic worlds, to escape from the reality in their daydreams, to evoke dreams and to put himself and others to sleep. In this regard, the author of the article underlines the role of dreams, poetic fantasy, human creativity, his passion for play,  hallucinative illusions and visions. The author appeals to the two initial sources of ancient culture described by Nietzsche, the Appolonian and the Dionysian. In his article Gurevich views human passion for dreaming as an attempt to extend the borders of human existence, to grasp the other worlds beyond man's power and to complete the missing fragments of human existence. The article is based on serious achievements of philosophy regarding such phenomena as myth, play and fanstasy. The author also uses the methods of philosophical anthropology. The article presents an attempt to view all sides of human existence that rae related to play. The author distinguishes between the definitions of imagination and fantasy and analyzes different forms of escape from the reality. The author tries to find the reasons of escape from the reality in dreams, art, carnivals and parades. He shows that human ability and passion for fantasizing prove the imcompleteness of human and his longing for being complete.  
Philology: scientific researches, 2016-2
Gurevich P.S. - Everlasting Recirculation of Signs

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0749.2016.2.19320

Abstract: The article is devoted to the poetics of fashion as it is analyzed in the monograph of a famous culture expert Inna Osinovskaya. It is noted that fashion could be created only in the kind of society that had at least some redundance of things. In her book Osinovskaya analyzes the 'vocabulary' of glossy magazines and press releases. At the same time, fashion brings forth the world of ancient myths and old fairy-tales which images have been always inwrapped with mystery. The main purpose of Inna Osinovskaya is to analyze the poetics of fashion and the system of images in fashion. In her research Osinovskaya applies the principle of historicism allowign to include numerous myths and fairy-tales in the analysis of modern fashi8on. As a result, considerable literary texts have been included in the spghere of fashion poetics. A lot of researches seem to have been written on the topic of fashion. However, thorough analysis of the topic demonstrates that there are a lot of fashion aspects that have never been studied. In particular, the graphic structure of fashion and singular poetics of fashion. Appealing to this topic, the researcher shows what a recipe book, glamour magazine and sacrifice, catwalk show and sacramental rites have in common. Osinovskaya studies typical fairy-tale characters such as the spinstress, tailor and shoemaker. She traces back the influence of these images on the poetics of modern fashion. Thus, the researcher manages to show the internal relationship between folklore and modern literature. 
Philosophy and Culture, 2016-1
Gurevich P.S. - Value in the quantum prospect

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0757.2016.1.17273

Abstract: The subject of this research is the transformation of value ideas under the influence of the quantum paradigm. What do we mean under the quantum paradigm? It is not only the newest concept in physics, and not even the modern scientific image of the world. Quantum consciousness represents a grandiose experiment of the transformation of the social and individual reality based on the patterns of behavior of elementary particles. Probably for the first time in history, physics invades the world of value absolutes, transforms them and readjusts almost our entire consciousness towards the quantum theory. How is that possible? It would seem that there is no link between the quantum thinking and drastic transformation of values in the modern era. Emerged as a peculiar revolution in physics, quantum idea not only signified a new scientific paradigm, but also produced a fundamental effect upon the value system of the current time, as well as future generations. It presented a complicated, nonlinear, uncertain and unstable world, which simultaneously exists in several states. Quantum paradigm broke the traditional perceptions about the Universe, reality, human nature, human as a unique creature, life and death, traditions and innovations, as well as sanctities that determine people’s behavior. Special attention is given to the principles of axiological interpretation. The author is first in the Russian literature to analyze the problem of values as it is posed within the quantum paradigm; he also notes the elimination of sacredness in explanation of human, human nature, sociality, and culture. The author suggest a thought that humanity again faces the “experience of reassessment of values”.   
Philosophy and Culture, 2016-1
Gurevich P.S. - Culture as the reality of life

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0757.2016.1.17521

Abstract: This article pursues correlation between the two fundamental works on culturology, which were created within different historical periods: E. S. Makaryan “Science about Culture and the Imperatives of the era” and A. S. Zapesotsky “Culture: from Russia’s perspective”. The book by E. S. Makaryan reflects the state of this area of knowledge in the Soviet time, while the book by A. S. Zapesotsky refers to present time. The first book represents the monographic research that defines the designation of culturology and characteristic to it specificity, as well as its relation to the other areas of knowledge. This research is polemical; it contains criticism of the outlooks upon culture, which belong to the Russian and foreign scholars. This analysis is aimed at the deep exploration of the problems of culturology within the framework of the historical-materialistic tradition. A. S. Zapesotsky book characterizes the current state of culturology. It confirms that the status of culturology within the modern humanitarian paradigm. Both of these researches often examine similar issues: on the status of culturology; on its ontological and epistemological problems; on relation of culturology towards other spheres of humanitarian knowledge. The author refers to the philosophy of culture and philosophy oh history, and also gives special attention to the principles of philosophical anthropology. The author attempts to demonstrate the evolution of opinions about culturology and culture in Soviet time, as well as in current time. The work by E. S. Markaryan is considered as the most complete idea on the cultural processes within the Soviet time. The research by A. S. Zapesotsky marks the significant changes in consolidation of the status of culturology.
Psychology and Psychotechnics, 2016-1
Gurevich P.S. - Simulacrum of Everyday Life

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0722.2016.1.17595

Abstract: The article is devoted to a particular example of the phenomenology of simulacrum. The author of the article refers to the description of the story that was analyzed in his book of 1978. However, analysis of the American TV show about the Louds is not a mere interest in documentalism. The previous interpetation of the event which was mostly perceived as everyone's interest towards archives is viewed by the author of the article as a more profound phenomenon. The author bases his research on the famous concept of simulacrum. In his research article Gurevich uses journalistic documents and conducts a psychological analysis of the 'industry of consciousness'. He analyzes why diaries, memoirs, drafts, notes and sketches in popular culture. The author has appealed to the works of modern post-modernists. The purpose of his research is to analyze the American TV show about the everyday life of the Loud family. The author views this TV show as the simulacrum of everyday life. The author proves that the TV show is not a product of the document about common life. The real is hidden there and decoded as a document, however, does not fully conform to the rules of the genre. Such interpretation of the simulacrum demonstrates modern trends of social thinking. According to the author, the TV show is a bright example of the process of simulacrumization. 
Philology: scientific researches, 2016-1
Gurevich P.S. - Robert Sheckley's Philosophical Plots

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0749.2016.1.18192

Abstract: The predicting power of philosophy is well known. Everyone also knows how immense artistic intuition can be. Rereading such science fiction authors as Ivan Efremov, Stanislav Lem, Arthur Clarke, the Strugatsky brothers, Ray Bradbury, Alfred Harrison, Kurt Vonnegut and others, we can be surprised at how much they predicted. American writer Robert Sheckley has a lot of philosophical plots in his works, too. His imagination has no limits. However, these are not just fruits of imagination as it seems. The writer tried to understand what consequences social transformations and scientific discoveries could have for the human future. In this research Gurevich uses the method of hermeneutical analysis that allows to understand the writer's messages. Using satire the author describes absurd situations created by the technological progress. It is for the first time in the academic literature that Robert Sheckley's stories are being analyzed as philosophical plots. The author of the present research article underlines that being familiar with psychoanalysis and gestalt psychology, Robert Sheckley tried to define the predicting power of those stories. He shows that reality is often just a fragile picture created by our senses, emotions, memory, experience and imagination. The surrounding reality is, in fact, fictitious. It is comprised of a million of details that are rooted in our subconscious and may become evident at every given opportunity.  
Philology: scientific researches, 2016-1
Gurevich P.S. - The Brilliance of Truth in the Prophetic Verb

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0749.2016.1.18193

Abstract: The article is devoted to the creative work of a famous Russian philosopher Natalia Avtonomova. To celebrate her jubilee, the book 'Toposes of Natalia Avtonomova's Philosophy. To the Jubilee' was published (Moscow, 2015). Besides her own articles, the book also contains researches of other authors who discuss similar issues and share the same approach to philosophy. This makes the importance and substantiality of Natalia Avtonomova's research even more obvious. First of all, she has made a tangible contribution to the theory of knowledge and concepts of rationality and subject. Moreover, Natalia Avtonomova has acted as an intermediary between Russian and French philosophy. She is the absolute authority in studying French structuralism and post-structuralism. Her research is based on the methods of historical philosophical analysis, comparative studies, psychoanalysis and structuralism. In some cases Natalia Avtonomova bases her research on the hermeneutic approach. The novelty of the topic and solutions is caused by the fact that the research covers a wide range of issues. Natalia Avtonomova has demonstrated a tremendous importance of M. Bakhtin's, M. Gasparov's, Yu. Lotman's and R. Yakobson's works. Her translations of Jacques Derrida's and Michel Foucault's works are a great research and contribution to the world philosophy. She has also made a great contribution to the translation theory. In Russian philosophy Natalia Avtonomova is known as a philosopher and philologist, publicist and translator. 
Litera, 2016-1
Gurevich P.S. - Romantic Arrangement of Spirit (Reviews of the Books 'Mikhail Yurievich Lermontov' and 'Nikolay Vasilievich Gogol' Written by N. Kotlyarevsky) pp. 45-53

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8698.2016.1.18690

Abstract: The article is devoted to works of the famous Russian literary critic Nestor Aleksandrovich Kotlyarevsky. Thanks to Svetlana Yakovlevna Levitte's efforts it was succeeded to publish two monographs of this researcher devoted to M. Yu. Lermontov and N. V. Gogol's creativity. N. A. Kotlyarevsky could collect biographic materials which have accumulated at the end of the 19th century about M. Yu. Lermontov's life and to show creativity of this author on a wide historical background. The researcher was interested first of all a subject of "demonic natures", the social conflicts and internal intense life of the poet. Addressing N. V. Gogol's creativity, N. A. Kotlyarevsky sought to reveal secrets of soul of the writer, to show connection with creativity of other Russian authors. About life and works of the called authors is written much. Also details of their spiritual aspirations are investigated. However N. A. Kotlyarevsky's monographs haven't lost the value. On the contrary, they can be an example of serious and versatile studying of works of the called artists. The author uses in this case methods of historico-literary research. He widely is guided by archival documents. Also hermeneutical method helping to get deeply into details of works of writers is applied. In article experience of monographic research of creativity of two famous representatives of the Russian literature is estimated: Lermontov and Gogol. Are analyzed not only texts of works, their semantic maintenance, the reader plunges into a stream of biographic details. The analysis of works is realized on the basis of reflections about intense spiritual life of these authors.
Pedagogy and education, 2016-1
Gurevich P.S. - Politics in Terms of Education and World's Fate

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0676.2016.1.18895

Abstract: Should we politicize education? What can we do to teach political thinking to school students? What is the most appropriate form of political education? There are constant debates about these issues. Occasionally teachers express concerns regarding excessive ideologization of school students. Meanwhile, education is actively involved into the political process. Many school graduates have to take an examination in social studies today. Statistics of previous years indicate that practically half of school students have to show their knowledge in social studies when passing the Unified State Exam. The Russian language and mathematics are mandatory exams but social studies are to be taken, too, by students who seek admission to humanitarian universities. The subject of the present research is the analysis of different problems of the geopolitical situation in the world that are essential for modern education. Social studies provide school students with the knowledge about many aspects of social including economics, law, philosophy, sociology, politology and history. Society is a living organism, developing system closely connected with the basic needs of human. In his research Gurevich has used the methodology of social philosophy which allows to productively analyze the situation in the modern world. In addition, the author has applied achievements of modern pedagogy. The author compares the two different researches (selected works 'Modern World and Geopolitics' and A. Vafin's monograph 'Political Marginals in Russia and Europe. Limonov, Fortein, Fortuyn, Cohn-Bendit and other cases'). These researches allow to describe a wide range of problems characterizing geopolitical priorities of Russia. According to the author, it is impossible to get a true insight into social issues without taking into account interpersonal, interclass, international and intergroup relations. It is noted that social studies should explain political issues to school students and to develop their living position, public spirit and their own views on modern political realias. 
Philosophy and Culture, 2015-12
Gurevich P.S. - Your Turn, Director!

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0757.2015.12.17329

Abstract: The Philosophy and Culture Journal has been published for eight years by now. The Journal was included in the list of readings recommended by VAK (The Higher Attestation Commission). The Higher Attestation Commission has approved the status of the Journal again this year. During these years the Journal has become popular in almost all regions from Lvov to Vladivostok, from Odessa to Murmansk. The number of the manuscripts in editor's hand is the best proof of that. The editors office does not even have an opportunity to promptly publish all the articles received. The editorial board consists of famous foreign and Russian scientists. To a certain extent, the Journal contents demonstrate what is happening in Russian philosophy. In this article Gurevich analyzes the events referring to the Institute of Philosophy of the Russian Academy of Sciences, the leader in this branch of science in Russia. The author bases his research article on modern interpretations of the philosophical process bringing forth a wide scope of researches in different fields, from epistemology to Oriental studies. The author of the article also discusses prospects of Russian philosophy after the Institute of Philosophy has been moved to another building, a new director has been selected, a wide-ranging discussion on further development of philosophy has been held at Institute of Philosophy of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the academic community of the Russian Academy of Sciences has offered to declare the year of 2017 to be the Year of Philosophy. 
Psychology and Psychotechnics, 2015-12
Gurevich P.S. - Boundaries of Psychological Space

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0722.2015.12.17388

Abstract: The expert journal 'Psychology and Psychotechnics' has been again approved as the journal recommended by the Highest Attestation Commission.  In the first instance, it is a good proof of the editorial board's efficient acitivity. The editorial board of the Psychology and Psychotechnics Journal includes such major scientists as members of the Russian Academy of Sciences Abdusalam Guseinov and Vladislav Lektorskiy, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Sciences Anatoliy Zhuravlev, doctors of psychology Tatyana Berezina, Diana Boboyavlenskaya, Dmitriy Leontyev, Marina Rozenova, Andrey Rossokhin, Alexander Tkhostov and others. Psychologists living in various regions of the country publish their articles in the Journal. Manuscripts in editor's hand are constantly and promptly growing. However, it would be good to make the journal more academic and discussing hot issues. For this purpose, the editorial board introduces famous scientists who are capable of extending the boundaries of psychological space. Issues and topics that are at the intersection between psychology and philosophy, psychology and medicine, psychology and social sciences are growing especially important. The academic community tends to believe that over the past decades new knowledge has been accumulated mostly through researches in a particular sphere. Today the problem of uniting different spheres of differentiated sciences is growing especially important. Comprehensive researches are becoming more significant. This raises a question about psychology starting to explore and extend its own boundaries. The editorial board often receives letters from psychologists who study the problems arising at the intersection between philosophy and psychology. However, it does not mean at all that these two disciplines can't make a union. The editors of the Psychology and Psychotechnics Journal believe that it is very important to research all the spheres that are close to psychology. The union between medicine and psychology is also important. There are the two forms of psychology, theoretical and practical. The latter often appeals to neurotic or psychopathic processes which creates an opportunity for researching mutual aspects of psychology and medicine as well as their interaction. 
Psychology and Psychotechnics, 2015-11
Gurevich P.S. - Psychoanalysis of Art

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0722.2015.11.16985

Abstract: In this case the editor-in-chief's column is devoted to the thoughts on the status of the psychoanalysis of art. Pavel Gurevich states that there are no grounds to claim that this sphere of applied psychoanalysis is not popular or hasn't acquired its followers. Meanwhile, the book published by one of the most talented Russian psychoanalysts Dmitry Olshansky 'Scenes of Sexual Life. Psychoanalysis and Semiotics of the Theatre and Cinema' is a significant event in the modern scientific and cultural life of Russia. The purpose of the present research is to carry out the critical analysis of numerous and rich ideas of Dmitry Olshansky, systematise the effors associated with the development of Russian psychoanalysis and analysis of the acute problems of modern art. The editor-in-chief has used the methodology of philosophical anthropology and psychoanalysis. He bases his research on classical achievements of philosophical in understanding the nature of human and outlines the basic provisions of classical and postclassical psychoanalysis. The novelty of the article is caused by the fact that the author has evaluated success of Russian psychoanalysis of art and described the acute topics and issues of this branch of aesthetics. According to the author, versatile scientific and critical activity of Dmitry Olshansky is worthy of admiration and recognition. In his book Dmitry Olshansky does not only extend our idea of the methodological basis of psychoanalysis being aimed at serious analysis of modern cultural practice. He also provides examples of quite succesful application of psychoanalytical methodology to particular events of social life, whether it is a play, movie, master class or creative position of a film director. Not only the theory of psychoanalysis but the practical and applied aspects of psychoanalysis is also a topical issue of our days. Repressions and oblivion of psychoanalysis did not manage to eliminate that sphere of world psychology in our country. 
Philosophy and Culture, 2015-11
Gurevich P.S. - Philosophical Brotherhood

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0757.2015.11.17113

Abstract: This is the review of the encyclopedic dictionary 'Philosphers of Modern Russia' (content by M. Bakhtin published in St. Petersburg in 2015). The above mentioned encylopedic dicionary is not the first attempt to provide insight into philosophers and philosophy from the point of view of the development of the latter throughout the history. In this regard, we can't keep from mentioning Pyotr Alekseev's contribution to publishing editions of this kind. Those editions excelled in strict academic manner and well developed manner of materials selection and evaluation. The encyclopedic dictionary the author is talking now does not withstand competition with the previous editions. The dictionary lacks complete data about the most famous philosophers and the material selection has a random nature as the author says himself. Gurevich bases his research on strong experience in writing encyclopedia obtained during the Soviet times. He follows traditions of the best glossaries our academic literature is so rich with. The reviewer approves of the editor's attempt to provide comprehensive and extensive research which would allow to describe different sides of the historical and philosophical process. Unfortunately, such interesting idea has led to creation of the 'intermediate' kind of dictionary. It is more likely to be the groundwork for a future substantive edition that will provide a better picture of the life of the philosophical society in our country. 
Philosophy and Culture, 2015-10
Gurevich P.S. - Spiritual Dispute of Civilizations

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0757.2015.10.16747

Abstract: The article is devoted to the choice of a global project. Creation of a global civilization was initiated by the European culture. Therefore, there is an opinion that the Euro-Atlantic civilization is dominating in the modern world.  This is the civilization which values are widely extended and affect the lifestyle of many peoples. However, there is also a so-called spiritual dispute ongoing between civilizations nowadays. American sociologist Samuel Huntington was the first one to mark out that tendency. Yet, the modern realities go beyond the bounds of Huntington's concept. It now becomes apparent that the Euro-Atlantic civilization is forced to meet the challenges of other civilizations and spiritual traditions. The author of the present article bases his research on the findings of today's comparative philosophy of culture. He has also used the achievements of philosophical anthropology which analyzes world processes from the point of view of human anture. In his article Gurevich has analyzed the global policy trends that appeared after Samuel Huntington's researches had been published. Rapid development of China and India has eventually changed the state of play in the world. Chinese civilization has become capable of running a global project of its own. In this regard, the author of the present article analyzes resources and claims of major civilizations for global leadership. The novelty of the author's approach to the problem is caused by the statement that none of modern civilization can actually prove their global projects to be immutable and universal. 
Psychology and Psychotechnics, 2015-10
Gurevich P.S. - Immortality in This and the Other Worlds

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0722.2015.10.16930

Abstract: The author of the article focuses on the themes of life and death that have interested philosophers and psychologists throughout many centuries and are being interpreted in a new way nowadays. Followers of the quantum mind start to speak of immortality with confidence. They associate soul with information and compare the Universe to a computer. According to their concept, human is idenfified with his mental content which is literally absorbed by the Universe after the death of an individual. Our mind tries to defend itself and therefore eliminates the common idea of death. The other variant of immortality is determined by the mind of a cybernaut which is another form of life marking the end of the 'protein' chauvinism. In the course of his research Gurevich has used the ideas of classical philosophy on immortality. At the same time, he has also taken into account achievements of philosophical anthropology that pays much attention to the issues of death and immortality. For the first time in the Russian academic literature on philosophy and psychology Gurevich analyzes different interpretations of soul including modern concepts. He underlines that many authors that touch upon immortality in their researches lack profound philosophical grounds. However, the theme has been important and studied by philosophers throughout the history of philosophy. In his research Gurevich has also provided a critical analysis of the newest interpretations of immortality. 
Philosophy and Culture, 2015-9
Gurevich P.S. - Philosophy of Labour

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0757.2015.9.16535

Abstract: The author of the article raises a question about the relevance of philosophy of labour as a special branch of current knowledge. This question comes to mind as a result of the devaluation of both the term 'labour' and obliged and important nature of labour. Consumer society cherishes the idea of the kind of society when humans withdraw themselves from labour activity and delegates all labour functions to machines. Such desacralization of labour creates numerous philosophical issues covered by the author of the present article. Within the framework of this branch of knowledge, it appears necessary to raise a question about the role of labour in human life in general as well as particular relation between labour and human nature. Gurevich bases his research on philosophical and anthropological research methods that view human nature as having the two meanings, general content of human existence and particular everyday human life. The author assumes that without understanding human nature, it is impossible to develop a universal comprehension of the phenomenon of labour. According to the author, labour is just another side of human existence just like love, game and death. There are the things human existence is impossible without. In addition, Gurevich also discusses the role of labour in human development. Gurevich also carries out a critical analysis of Georg Simmel's theory. The author also outlines a range of questions to be analyzed in the future. 
Psychology and Psychotechnics, 2015-9
Gurevich P.S. - Irresistible Temptations of Lie

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0722.2015.9.16618

Abstract: The article is devoted to lying as an irresistible human temptation. Immanuel Kant believed deception and misbelief to be doubtlessly evil so he taught us to be honest. The German philosopher also believed that too much lying could destroy the society. However, other philosophers were not so categorical about that issue. For example, Friedrich Nietzsche believed that neither truth nor lie could be the basis for social existence. The author of the present article pays attention to the paradoxical perplexity of deception and truth in individual and social life. In particular, he notes that being raised by illusion, art often reveals the true problems of human existence. In his research Gurevich has used the philosophical anthropology methodology which allows to see contradictory sides of each phenomenon. Starvation for truth and deception is being viewed by the author as the human needs that are difficult to be satisfied. For the first time in the academic literature the author of the article raises a question about consequences of the universal interest for truth and lie and demonstrates how dangerous it is to arrange social life based on illusions and deception. From this point of view, the author conducts a critical analysis of Immanuel Kant's, Friedrich Nietzsche's and Erich Fromm's concepts. Interpreting Freud's theory, American philosophers paid attention only to achieving the truth during psychotherapy but ignored paradoxical aspiration of humans for day-dreaming and delusional or virtual aspects of life. 
Philosophy and Culture, 2015-8
Gurevich P.S. - Animal and Human

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0757.2015.8.15843

Abstract: The present article is devoted to critical analysis of the sociobiological concept of human. It is emphasized that this approach synthesizes social Darwinism, genetic determinism and ethologism. Sociobiologists advocate the expansion of the scope of biological researches that try to explain human nature. The main objective of sociobiological disputes is to answer the question to what degree the behavior of human is determined by genetic factors, or how cultural development corresponds to human genetics. Such research trend is called genetic-cultural coevolution. Some researchers are convinced that the behavior of human is entirely determined by sociocultural prerequisites. Others, on the contrary, consider that genetic factors play the dominating role in behavior of not only animals but also humans. In his article Gurevich has used theoretical achievements of philosophical anthropology that proves uniqueness of human as a living being of a special kind. The author also describes approaches to the subject of the research from the position of sociobiologists who depreciate or eliminate the role of cultural factors in human behvior and destination. In his article the author also critisizes sociobiology taking into account the latest developments of biology and philosophy of culture. It is shown that representatives of sociobiology assumed the role of orthodox evolutionists. As well as Charles Darwin, sociobiologists try to explain social behavior of animals from the point of view of the theory of natural selection. At the same time, the author has noted that there are no bases to accept achievements of population genetics without critics. Gurevich raises a question whether modern humans are capable of changing the nature of evolution. It is proved that one should not consider evolution only as a mean of species conservation. Evolution allows to mark out only conservative features, i.e. to inherit and keep only checked and selected features in the course of development.
Psychology and Psychotechnics, 2015-8
Gurevich P.S. - Deep Inside, Where There is No Bottom of Your Soul... (Psychological Issues of Social Management)

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0722.2015.8.16263

Abstract: Nowadays politicians and psychologists talk a lot about how important it is to improve the management of processes ongoing in the society. Admittedly, reforms that had taken place recently in Russia did not have the desired effect and even turned out to have a negative influence in some cases. Political and social problems cannot be solved due to the low level of management culture. In this article Gurevich provides a critical analysis of modern technocratic projects. Today's academic and popular literature emphasizes the need for creating the kind of management system that would be autonomous from the government and be able to solve strategic issues. The author of the article demonstrates that these suggestions are not new though because they reflect the ambitions of the technocratic kind of thinking. In his turn, the author bases his work on modern psychological and philosophical concepts to describe a new scientific paradigm. To his opinion, one-sided technocratism does not respond to the challenges of the modern age any more. For the first time in Russian academic literature the author makes a supposition that gaps and failures of management technocratism are caused by the neglect of the sacral dimension of human existence. Modern rationality supersedes transcendent findings from the social life. According to the quantum theory, these compoments are returned to the social existence in a new form. This is what causes the failures of the reforms. Technocrats only intensify the pressure on sacrality. 
Philosophy and Culture, 2015-7
Gurevich P.S. - Diverse and Searching Identity

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0757.2015.7.15777

Abstract: The article is devoted to a very complex anthropological and social phenomenon - identity. The author of the article studies the need for self-identity as the core and deep need which is rather difficult to be satisfied. However, Gurevich states that most of the previous concepts of identity turn to be unacceptable. For example, the belief of the modern period that both a stone and human want to be what they are predetermined to be seems to be rather disputable. Nowadays human often denies his identity, gets dissolved in social anonymity and gravitates towards the zero self-identity. In his article Gurevich shows that identification is a difficult, contradictory and paradoxical process. In his research the author has ued the methods of philosophical anthropology as the science that has already developed certain principles of the analysis of particular social and anthropological issues. The author also relies on the historicity principle focusing on the fundamental changes in the interpretation of this phenomenon. The novelty of the article is caused by the fact that therein the author provides a synopsis of the problems associated with the identity phenomenon. The author emphasizes that identity is a purely human need and formed by human relations to a great extent. In this regard, identity is not a substance that starts to disappear as many authors write about. In this article Gurevich analyzes identity as the individual phenomenon first of all. However, he also demonstrates that aspiration for self-identity is typical not only for individuals but also for countries, cultures and civilizations. Special attention is paid to the 'divided consciousness' of human and identification paradoxes. 
Psychology and Psychotechnics, 2015-7
Gurevich P.S. - Are We Programmed or Not?

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0722.2015.7.15812

Abstract: The present article is directed against the two types of reductionism, biological and cultural. Today neuroscienes have achieved incredible results, described the complex structure of brain tissue and discovered parts of the brain that determine rather unexpected aspects of human behavior. For example, who would have thought that there is a certain area in our genes that is in charge of adultery? This means that all human activities are firmly fixed in human genes. Needless to say that the analysis of human activity should be started with the study of the most recent findings of neurosciences. However, it does not mean that biological determinism should be considered to be the final truth. On the other hand, there are no grounds to overemphasize the role of cultural factors in human life. Cultural determinism means being based on the social situation and explaining human behavior only by social reasons. Gurevich bases his research on the methods of popular sociobiology, however, he uses only those ideas and provisions that do not allow to overemphasize biological or cultural determinism of human behavior. Gurevich has also applied data collected by individual and social psychology. Lately there has been quite a number of researches critisizing biological determinism. Russian researchers pay less attention to the analysis of cultural determinism. Meanwhile, Gurevich believes that both of these tendencies simplify the history and human behavior too much. To express his position, Gurevich describes the matrix of factors that determine complex processes of human activity. These processes cannot be reduced only to the confrontation between biological and cultural determinism. Value systems play a very significant role in the motivation of human behavior, too because they allow to overcome the rigorous determination of genic or social nature of human. 
Psychology and Psychotechnics, 2015-6
Gurevich P.S. - Disordered Mind as the Progeny of Gene

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0722.2015.6.15482

Abstract: The present article is devoted to schizophrenia. Nowadays when all mental processes are viewed as being based on physiology, particular attention is paid to the problems of genetic disposition to this mental disorder. However, scientists who tried to find genetic factors inevitably leading to schizophrenia faced certain difficulties. It turned out that schizophrenia genes are spread throughout genom. Recent researches outlined a number of locuses that presumably cause schizophrenia. At the same time, these researches have been disproved in the 21st century because no gene that would be in charge of the development of this mental disorder was found. In the present research Gurevich has analyzed the results of psychiatric researches on schizophrenia. In addition, Gurevich has carried out the critical analysis of the phenomenon of reductionism when complex phenomena are 'reduced' to simpler or more basic phenomena. The researcher also examines biological and cultural determinism, their achievements and disadvantages. The novelty of the author's approach is caused by the fact that the author tries to analyze not only the gene mutation as the cause of schizophrenia but also discuss situations when genetic predisposition to schizophrenia does not develop due to social or cultural factors. Special attention is paid to risk factors as well as conditions that allow to overcome the 'sentence' to madness. The researcher also performs the critical analysis of the sociobiological thesis that all past and present forms of social organization are caused by specific activity of genes. Gurevich describes the sequences that follow the concept of genetic determinancy of social organization through natural selection. 
Philosophy and Culture, 2015-6
Gurevich P.S. - Human. Who is He?

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0757.2015.6.15598

Abstract: The subject of the research is the human identity in the situation of changing views on human nature. In the vocabulary of philosophical anthropology the terms 'human nature' and 'identity' have been reviewed and changed most of all over the past decades. Not too long ago 'human nature' was understood as a set of stable and permanent features, general dispositions and characteristics that express peculiarities of human as a living creature and that attribute to Homo sapiens at all times disregarding biological evolution and historical process. Today there are many debates on who a living creature is and what distinguishes a living creature from a cyborg. Moreover, the term 'human nature' loses its universal and abstract meaning. When a certain part of human population starts to become 'post-humans', general characteristics of human should become unstable, too. This raises a question about what part of humanity can be described through human nature. However, even more difficulties appeared when the term 'identity' was interpreted. In his article Gurevich has used the methodology of philosophical anthropology. Today's philosophical anthropology is not only a branch of philosophy or a certain philosophical discipline but a special way of thinking that can't be explained by the means of formal or dialectic logic. The initial point of anthopological philosophy has always been human in a concrete historical, social, existential or psychological situation. In his article Gurevich shows that modern transhumanism does not view human as an animal any more but at the same time human is not viewed as a social creature either. All the previous philosophical concepts of human are not 'legal' any more. We witness human stop being an animal. Transhumanists are not satisfied with the biological form of life any more. They prove that anthropomorphism is just one of the variants of intelligent life, thus other variants of intelligent life are also possible. However, human is not a social creature any more either. Quantum thinking creates new forms of coexistence and allows to distinguish an intelligent being from the social world. However, this is not the whole story. A new intelligent being becomes a Messiah who is intended to put the Universe in order and to achieve his destination which will allow to win the competition with other nonearthly creatures. All the previous definitions of identity become demolished. 
Philosophy and Culture, 2015-5
Gurevich P.S. - Symbol as the Code of the Mankind

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0757.2015.5.15248

Abstract: Language experts are now discussing whether it is possible to invent a universal language for all nations. Many of them believe that one of the today's widely spoken languages like English or other language could become such a mean of universal communication. There have been attempts to create a universal 'artificial' language but none of these has been a success. Meanwhile, scientists are growing more and more confident that the language of symbols would be just right for the universal communication. It is already the code and set of passwords for politicians, people of art, advertising and business representatives. In this article Gurevich discusses the opportunity of creating the symbolic code that would be clear and understandable for all the humans. Gurevich analyzes the achievements of contemporary philosophy of culture. The author also bases his article on aesthetic researches and introduces the theory of communication for the purposes of the analysis. For the first time in social philosophy the author raises the question about creating a unified code of symbols for the universal communication in the process of global reconstruction of the world. In fact, such a language is already being created. Enormous numbers of people have entered the visionary worlds where symbol reigns. However, symbols do not have the features of national culture such as writing and alphabet. Taking this into account, it is necessary to admit that creation of a universal symbolic code is the topic that requires intense philosophical analysis. 
Psychology and Psychotechnics, 2015-5
Gurevich P.S. - Unity by Quantum not Blood

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0722.2015.5.15318

Abstract: The research subject of the present article is the influence of quantum reasoning on the phenomenon of ethnic identity. Throughout centuries ethnic self-identity has been maintained by uniform traditions and kin relationships. However, the 'blood factor' has been gradually replaced with other forms of social solidarity. It even seemed that ethnic awareness would be dissolved in the interior of social dynamics. Yet, it has turned out to be a more complex problem than it seemed to followers of Eurocentrism and ideologists of globalization. Ethnic mentality often revealed inexplicit roots, thereby reflecting the opposition between nature and society. Globalism has faced active forms of ethnic and national opposition to the general flow of history. In his article Gurevich has used achievements of ontological researches, acquirements of philosopho-historical reasoning, experience in comparing socio-cultural results and, finally, the most recent findings in physics and their effect on the development of the scientific picture of the world. For the first time in the academic literature Gurevich analyzes the drastic shift from ethnic identity to quantum reasoning that created new forms of social communities. There is growing belief in psychology that the picture of the world presented by quantum physics insists on the redevelopment of the entire social life of humankind. There is similar belief that history has prepared the breakthrough that would allow people to 'jump' into a new, and to a great extent, artificial world. Figuratively speaking, the call of the blood that has started ethnic awareness will be gradually replaced with the 'unity by quantum' or, more exactly, new means of human self-identity. The author stresses out that this is a complex and controversial process. 
Philosophy and Culture, 2015-4
Gurevich P.S. - The Truth of the Great Leader

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0757.2015.4.14936

Abstract: The article reviews a remarkable book by P.A. Nazareth about an outstanding leader of out time Mahatma Gandhi. The book describes Gandhi’s versatile activities as a political figure and statesman for the first time in world literature. It reconstructs the history of his development as a political leader. Gandhi is presented in this case as a unique person. A historian or a researcher in modern politics will find in this book valuable material about the great country that currently becomes a major power capable of influencing global events. The author uses the method of comparison of two books – by P.A. Nazareth and the book by a prominent American psychoanalyst, one of the founding fathers of psychohistory Erik Erikson. Comparativist techniques permit to show Gandhi’s significant influence on many cultural workers and transformations in other countries.The methods of psychohistory and political philosophy in general are compared for the first time in modern literature. P.A. Nazareth refers to the works of E. Erikson. But he goes his own way, thoroughly investigating Gandhi’s political activities. At the same time, the book portrays the image of a unique man who was involved in very dramatic historical events. Being a historical analysis, P.A. Nazareth’s book responds to modern global transformations. This is its undoubted value.
Psychology and Psychotechnics, 2015-4
Gurevich P.S. - One Language or Multilingualism?

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0722.2015.4.15026

Abstract: The research subjet is the psychological and cultural grounds for creation of a unified planetary language. Is there a need in a unified planetary language? In what way can it be created? What if it is better to listen to all 'voices' and languages of the modern world rather than to create a new esperanto or a language that would be more flexible and popular with masses? Who defines the status of a universal language? What plays the more important role in the process of creating such a language, theoretical findings of language experts or the political will of modern leaders? What will happen to the heritage of small ethnic groups and social communities on the periphery of the global process? What if the humankind loses cultural treasures when different cultural orientations will become one? As we see, this topic raises a lot of questions that need to be solved as soon as possible. In his research Gurevich has used the methods of psycholinguistics as well as findings of philosophy of culture and philosophy of language. He has also used the methods of comparative research. It is demonstrated that the fate of languages in the epoch of globalization brings out all kinds of philosophical, socio-cultural and linguistic isues. This topic is not only nettlesome but also very important in the conceptual meaning. The spiritual debates of civilizations oblidge humanities to state a whole number of problems as a result of globalization. In his article Gurevich also discusses what language could undertake the role of the universal language. He also discusses whether it would be useful to create a universal communication code. 
Philosophy and Culture, 2015-4
Gurevich P.S. - The Link Between Human and His World

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0757.2015.4.15113

Abstract: The problems of the philosophical understanding of human have always been the priority in Paul Ricoeur's researches. In the present article Gurevich tries to describe the logic of the philosophical and anthropological views of that French researcher. Special attenion is paid to the problem of human subjectivity. Paul Ricoeur developed a whole framework of concepts to describe the connection between human and his inner world. Ricoeur's philosophy is related to Husserl's phenomenology, especially that of the period of Lebenswelt. Ricoeur's philosophy was also influenced by Heidegger's existentialism, Freud's psychoanalysis and Jean Nabor's 'reflective' philosophy. Paul Ricoeur noted that he tried to avoid following monistic or dualistic ontology but to focus on the semantics of the discourse between representatives of neurosciences and philosophers who declared themselves to be inheritants of the French reflective philosophy (from Maine de Biran and Ravaisson to Jean Nabor) and at the same time phenomenology (from Husserl to Sartre and Merleau-Ponty) and hermeneutics (from Schleiermacher to Dilthey, Heidegger and Gadamer). In his article Gurevich focuses on the anthropological theme in Paul Ricoeur's phenomenology. The French philosopher managed to find that very element in Husserl's philosophy that brought together phenomenology and existentialism. That allowed Ricoeur to reconstruct phenomenological concepts. In particular, Husserl interpreted the external aim (intention) as a cognitive act. That could be compared to the phenomenological way of thinking. However, Ricoeur believed intention to be an act of will which allowed him to bring together the elements of philosophical and anthropological ways of thinking and interpret a number of categories and concepts in philosophical anthropology. 
SENTENTIA. European Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 2015-4
Gurevich P.S., Rudneva E.G. - The apophatic project of man pp. 68-97

DOI:
10.7256/1339-3057.2015.4.16971

Abstract: The article deals with the apophatic interpretation of man that has taken shape in modern Western literature as negation of all known attributes and properties of Adam’s offspring. The main proposition of new apophaticism, according to the authors, is disappointment in man. He is no longer considered as a measure of all things, as a creature endowed with reason and morality, as an exponent of humanistic consciousness. Human characteristics acquire a negative arrangement. Man is the focus of sinful thoughts, cruel desires, nearly the whole anatomy of destructiveness. Man’s essence is found in his striving for death. In this context, there is a need for comprehension of this tradition, which, as appears, to a considerable extent is inherent in European philosophy in some form or another.The authors are guided by philosophical-anthropological approaches to interpretation of human nature. They use the methodology of classical and postmodernist philosophy.The novelty of the work is in description of the apophatic image of man that has taken shape in modern philosophical anthropology. Conceptions of F. Nietzsche, G. Bataille and other authors are analyzed. The notion of human nature and human integrity is discussed. Human integrity is not rejected by modern philosophical anthropology, neither is it postulated as a preset anthropological property. It is acquired through the incoherence, fragmentariness of human existence. As is shown, the failure of the enlightening model of the ideal man in European culture has caused an irresistible interest to negative, pathological traits in human nature.The authors come to the conclusion that the apophatic project of man has permitted to reveal many real problems of current human existence. At the same time, it turned out that man has an inherent secret desire to rid himself of the idea of his existence, of his essence. The very reproduction of man as a human being is being ousted by machines, clones, prostheses. J. Baudrillard in this context writes about the end of anthropology, which is surreptitiously withdrawn by machines and new technologies.
Philology: scientific researches, 2015-4
Gurevich P.S. - 'Is there Anything Not in My Power?' (Experience of One Emotional Storyboarding)

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0749.2015.4.17487

Abstract: The purpose of the research is to analyse the monologue of Philip the baron in Alexander Pushkin's tragedy 'The Miserable Knight'. Pushkin's little tragedies are enormously rich in psychological findings. As a branch of science, psychology was only about to be born, but a true genius does not need to read books. He looks into the nature of personalities and human passions. Pushkin fearlessly reveals the duality of human feelings. He demonstrates that one emotional state may insensibly turn into the opposite emotion which was hidden at the bottom of the triumphant feeling. The feeling of unlimited power creates fear and uncertain sensation of a catastrophe in the baron's heart. The fear as it is is distinguished from the awe which is a deeper emotional state unexplainable by logic when 'it is both fear and pleasure'. It is not an accident that Albert addresses to the moneylender with a paradoxical greeting: 'Damn Jude, honorable Solomon'. In his research Gurevich has usedthe methods of psychological and linguistic analysis such as decoding of ambivalent human feelings, analysis of emotional states and the character's speech. Gurevich also appeals to modern Pushkin studies and makes an attempt to carry out his own  storyboarding of the monologue of the Miserable Knight from Pushkin's little tragedy. The author also tries to actualize the message of the poem and to define paradoxical logic of feelings. At the same time, in his article Gurevich tries to illustrate the Miserable Knight's speech with references to modern psychology. Thus, analysis of the little tragedy's content is included into the phenomenology of people's sensible world. 
Pedagogy and education, 2015-4
Gurevich P.S. - Selfless Devotion as Part of Human Existence

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0676.2015.4.17596

Abstract: The article is devoted to the phenomenon of spirituality which is being analyzed based on the three books published by the Canon+ publishing: E. Mescherina's 'Spiritual Grounds of the Feat (Essays on Russian Culture)', M. Chertok's 'Musicians of the Victory Parade' and 'The Fate of a Scientist in Changing Times' edited by G. Bragin, A. Vaf, G. Sdasyuk and T. Shaumyan. Spirituality is a universal phenomenon. It is expressed through facts of sacral culture and historical events as well as fates of particular people who devoted their life to science. Recent researches emphasize the importance of 'sensual reasoning' and ability to adequately respond to surrounding people and get along with others in interpersonal relationships. The main provision of the eternal philosophy is that in the end the quality of life depends on so called 'spiritual reasoning'. Spiritual reality is a deep philosophical and metaphysical grasp of reality and ourselves. In his research Gurevich uses the methods of reconstructing the memorial practice of the country. This also refers to the history of Russian culture. The author has also applied the hermeneutical approach which allowed to provide an adequte evaluation of cultural monuments. The article will be of interest to educators who carry out patriotic upbrining. The article contains various examples of spiritual devotion. Analysis of the history of Russian culture is filled with the pride for unfading achievements of Russians who created great monuments of philosophy and art. Russia's space is a culture-historical community exceeding the limits of national states and, all the more so, political systems. Historical spiritual forces, Victory music and selfless devotion of science. 
Philosophy and Culture, 2015-3
Gurevich P.S. - Specificity of Ñharacters in the System of Spiritual Ñoordinates of Eduard Spranger (continuation)

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0757.2015.3.14516

Abstract: Constructing man is a paranoid desire of out time. It appears that a human being can be modelled. Like in a song, «I made you from what there was». But post-modernists do not remove from the agenda the problem of human wholeness. The main point is different: if man is not «disintegrated», the collected image of man will display its well-known conventionality, stereotyped nature. And this is no good. Human fragments should acquire some plasticity, readiness for unexpected combinations. A character that for many centuries was described as individuality makes way for a «dividual», an autonomous fragmentary entity. In this article, the author continues critical analysis of human typology developed by E.Spranger as an expression of some human value or another. The German scholar believed that transformation of education would discover this potential. But the value orientation that engenders this character has proven to be more essential.The author uses methods and principles of philosophical anthropology. He takes into account many attempts at creating classifications of human characters. He analyzes psychological conceptions, too. In particular, the characterology of E. Spranger is compared with the typology of social characters offered by E. Fromm.Spranger’s characterology becomes a subject of critical analysis for the first type in Russian literature. The author points to the arbitrariness of the principle from which the German philosopher proceeds when he describes various spiritual attitudes underlying some way of life or another. As a rule, one of such attitudes prevails in activities of a particular individual. Singling out fundamental values, to which a human being is oriented in his behaviour and which finally predetermine him, Spranger does not take into account that in each of these spheres there can often be found individuals with directly opposite psychic properties and specific traits. In the article, his principle is characterized as abstract. The article shows that analysis of market orientation by E. Fromm gives a more detailed understanding of the economic man.
Psychology and Psychotechnics, 2015-3
Gurevich P.S. - Do Animals Have Unconscious?

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0722.2015.3.14758

Abstract: The question whether animals have the unconscious does not seem to admit a negative answer. But understanding of this problem necessitates, on the one hand, consideration of the processes of domestication of animals, their taming, and on the other hand, analysis of the processes that go on now in the life of living beings in general. The article reinterprets the traditional demarcations between animals and people. While in the beginning of the past century psychiatrists and philosophers believed that psychoses, serious neurotic disorders are not characteristic for animals but are a human “privilege”, in the beginning of this century we obtained extensive material indicative of deep and versatile neurotization of animals.The article uses methods of psychological and psychiatric analysis of the processes going on nowadays in the realm of domestic animals. As has been shown, the canons of zoopsychology are now replaced by zoopsychiatry. Therefore, the methods and techniques of interpreting traditional problems of the mind and the unconscious change, too.The novelty of the article is in the fact that there is a possibility of combining experimental data of zoopsychology and the findings of psychological studies of human society. Traditionally, the life of animals and humans has been viewed separately. For instance, nobody could think of transferring the laws of human existence into animal communities. Neither was practiced the projection of knowledge about animal communities onto human behaviour. Meanwhile, J. Baudrillard has shown that such superposition of the two systems is not only specific but also extremely significant. Observing neurotization of domestic animals, we can see that similar processes take place also in human communities. Thus opens up a new field of research into mental phenomena.
Psychology and Psychotechnics, 2015-3
Gurevich P.S. - Relativism as a Cognitive Malady

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0722.2015.3.14787

Abstract: The subject of study is reflection over the book «Relativism kak bolezn’ sovremennoy filosofii [Relativism as a malady of modern philosophy]» (Ed.-in-chief V.A. Lektorskiy. M., 2015). Why is relativism as one of methodological principles of knowledge assessed in the book as a malady of modern philosophy? Do we not see a constant escape of the single truth replaced by the luxuriant meadow of diverse opinions? Are we, contrary to Kant, convinced in the limitlessness and liturgical harmony of human knowledge? The conception of the book is not directed against cognitive doubts, does not dispute possible assumptions of the plurality of truth. It shows its indisputability to the extent that relativism becomes hardly ever the dominating methodological rule. It is in this sense that K. Popper called relativism «the main malady of our time». Is knowledge (and/or truth) relative, does it depend on time, place, society, culture, historical epoch, conceptual frame? Or is it absolute, universal and independent? These and similar questions are as old as philosophy and characterize the opposing doctrines – relativism and absolutism.Standard methods of scientific research are used, including the method of comparative analysis, referring to traditional problems of epistemology – the nature of rationality, understanding the possibilities of knowledge and changing of the world.The novelty of the work is related to analysis of critical approaches to modern relativism. The book attempts at finding the foundations of relativism and its practical shortcomings. Relativistic tendencies in modern epistemology and philosophy of science and also in sciences of man, psychology, cultural and historical science are examined. The authors distinguish between relativism and scepticism: they show that pluralism can fruitfully be practiced exactly if it is interpreted in the antirelativistic clue. Relativism, as reductionism, claims to be the only methodological principle capable of giving birth to modern philosophy in its search of new foundations of knowledge.
Philology: scientific researches, 2015-3
Gurevich P.S. - Till Death My Passion Will Be With Me...(About the Poetry of Borish Chichibabin)

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0749.2015.3.15868

Abstract: The article is devoted to the analysis of creative work of a famous Russian and Soviet poet Boris Chichibabin. This poet had an uneasy life. He had to live through and accept the experience of being imprisoned. He experienced hatred and malevolence of other authors. The poet's creative work was too far from rules and standards of literary writing. He was called the 'genius graphomaniac'. Is it an oxymoron? Graphomania is the antipode of genius. However, Boris Chichibabin was certainly a genius. The author of the present article focuses on the main themes of Boris Chichibabin's poetry such as love, passion, spirituality, death and literary gift. Gurevich emphasizes that Chichibabin's poetry has no negative or dark moods. Anger or rancour is alient to him. In the course of his research Gurevich has used hermeneutical methods of textual analysis allowing to reveal the hidden meaning, codes and symbols of the poem. The author also bases his research on the methods of philosophical analysis of human and his passions. Russian academic literature does not have so many articles or researches devoted to Borish Chichibabin. One of such article is the essay 'The Lonely School of Love. Poetry of Borish Chichibabin' written by G. Pomeranets. Being a famous culture expert, Pomeranets tries to demonstrate the true value of Chichibabin's poetry as well as his role in the history of Russian culture. In his essay Pomeranets relates particular poems written by Chichibabin to life situations experienced by the poet. Still, Boris Chichibabin's poetry deserves a more detailed critical analysis, in particular, analysis of his particular style and genre. Of course, just one research article wouldn't be enough to achieve this goal. Gurevich's article is rather an invitation for a more detailed and comprehensive analysis of the creative work of this famous poet. 
Philology: scientific researches, 2015-3
Gurevich P.S. - Religious Plots of Chyngyz Aitmatov: Sacrifice or Spirituality? (On the 30th Anniversary of the Novel 'The Scaffold' Being Published)

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0749.2015.3.16885

Abstract: Thirty years ago the novel 'The Scaffold' written by Chyngyz Aitmatov provoked intense debates and ideological disagreements. Many readers and critics wondered whether spiritual searches must necessarily lead to religion. There have been people whose spiritual experience prove that there are certain transcendental forces that are beyond our understanding. These people believe in God who suffered for the sake of humans because he loves us. Sometimes a person gets the feeling of being very close to the Divine and being able to communicate with God directly. The believer says a prayer in the hope of God hearing his confession. Such person attains religious experience that helps him to live and overcome difficult situations. These people believe that the mystery of human life refers to special divine mission. However, many people do not have such religious experience. They believe that the world was created on its own, without the interference of the transpersonal absolute. These people seek for other spiritual supports unrelated to God, first of all, in human himself, emancipation of consciousness and grandiose creativity of the humankind. It is almost pointless to discuss religious topics with them, because their soul cannot generate anything besides scepsis. This creates a rather odd conversation, interlocutors can't find a common language with each other, one trying to prove that there is God and the other one trying to say that there is no God. The author of the present article bases his work on recent researches conducted in the sphere of philosophy of religion. His presumption is that the religion phenomenon has always interested philosophers, historians and sociologists. Religious searches and insights have been also reflected in literature. Analyzing Chyngyz Aitmatov's novel 'The Scaffold', the author of the article tries to describe tremendous changes in the social mind of Russians during the previous thirty years. Fashion for religiosity is overwhelming. We don't even notice that religious maxims have replaced the slogans of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. They are written on the banner above the highway. When we turn on TV, we may feel even surprised if we don't see Orthodox vigils. Politicians always mention their religious revelations when telling us their biography. Where are you, undefeated heretics? What is actually typical for the religious life of Russia? Can we actually speak of religious revival in our country? Are the churches actually uniting or on the contrary religious practice causes disunity? Finally, are there prospects for the development of the ecumenic movement in Russia? All these questions cannot be answered without involving secular humanistically oriented philosophers and thinkers. Can we actually revive the abandoned religious tradition in our country? As a result of totalitarian despotism, many people have been knocked out of their national, religious and cultural niche. 
Pedagogy and education, 2015-3
Gurevich P.S. - Social Thinker

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0676.2015.3.17116

Abstract: The present article is the author's response to Illaria Bachilo's book about a great Russian reformer Mikhail Speransky 'Mikhail Speransky as the Patriarch of Russian Administrative Science' published in Moscow in 2015. In his book Illaria Bachilo describes numerous projects and creative insights of the great reformer and political activist of the first half of the XIXth century. It may seem paradoxical, but his contemporaries knew very little about his life and fate. His mission of a theorist and practical lawyer was not so easy. He lived through ups and downs and dismissal from office. However, he never left the reformation path. The history of his success and failures reflects the difficult path of Russia towards being a powerful and unique country. In the course of his research the author has referred to numerous historical documents and archives. The author also bases his research on classical writings on legal studies and historical researches of reformation in Russia. Mikhail Speransky and his activity have interested researchers for quite a long time. There is quite a number of researches about him which tell us about the history of Russia of the first half of the XIXth century, Speransky's biography and activity as the State Secretary during the reign of Alexander the First as well as his work on codification of laws. Researches of Mikhail Speransky's scientific legacy in the sphere of state structure throughout the reigns of Russian emperors and observation of Russian experience in state management were reflected in the academic literature. However, there are no grounds to believe that all aspects of Mikhail Speransky's life and work have been already studied. In this regard, Illaria Bachilo's research is of great value and importance. 
Philosophy and Culture, 2015-2
Gurevich P.S. - Specificity of Ñharacters in the System of Spiritual Coordinates of Eduard Spranger

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0757.2015.2.14363

Abstract: The subject of study is classification of characters by the German philosopher and psychologist Eduard Spranger. People have long time ago noticed that the human has many faces. Socrates and Don Quixote, Falstaff and Maria Theresa, Sancho Panza and marquis de Sade, Alexander of Macedon and Harun who “ran faster than a fallow deer”, Marcus Aurelius and Dantes. Philosophers and historians sought similar and different traits in human beings. We see an individual as he conveys himself: as he moves, loves and feels, as his way of life is, as his needs, goals and longings, his ideals are and how he shapes them, what values drive him, what and how he does, realizes, creates. There are many approaches to dividing individuals as carriers of a character or type. The article offers a critical analysis of Spranger’s conception.The author uses methods and principles of philosophical anthropology. He takes into account many attempts at creating classifications of human characters. He analyzes psychological conceptions, too. In particular, the characterology of E.Spranger is compared with the typology of C.G.Jung.The characterology of Spranger becomes a subject of critical analysis for the first type in Russian literature. The author points to the arbitrariness of the principle from which the German philosopher proceeds when he describes various spiritual attitudes underlying some way of life or another. As a rule, one of such attitudes prevails in activities of a particular individual. Singling out fundamental values to which a human being is oriented in his behaviour and which finally predetermine him, Spranger does not take into account that in each of these spheres there can often be found individuals with directly opposite psychic properties and specific traits. In the article his principle is characterized as abstract.
Philology: scientific researches, 2015-2
Gurevich P.S. - Eduard Spranger on the Beautiful and Aesthetic Man

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0749.2015.2.14364

Abstract: The article is devoted to the analysis of the aesthetic ideas of the German philosopher, psychologist and educator Eduard Spranger. Last year his book «Types of men: the psychology and ethics of personality» was fully published for the first time in the Russian language. Among six human types Eduard Spranger singls out the aesthetic man. Reconstructing this type, he turns to aesthetics and exposes his opinions about the nature of the beautiful and aesthetics as a psychological character. A special role belongs to his ideas about prominent philosophers and poets who, he believes, represent the aesthetic type. The author of the article uses methods and techniques of aesthetic analysis of works of art. The typology of forms of life is deduced from a comprehensive picture of the philosophy of spirit. The article is based on hermeneutic analysis of artistic creation and aesthetic practice. The aesthetic man in the works of Eduard Spranger is analyzed for the first time in Russian literature. The author of the article points out that an aesthetician as Soren Kierkegaard understands it and the aesthetic man of Eduard Spranger are not similar by their conceptual interpretation. The expressionist and impressionist forms of existence are being compared and analyzed. In his article Gurevich underlies that certain provisions of the aesthetic theory of Spranger are not new and sometimes require critical assessment.
Psychology and Psychotechnics, 2015-2
Gurevich P.S. - Ontological Reductionism

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0722.2015.2.14455

Abstract: The article presents a critical review of the so called «ontological reductionism». The author believes that this methodological position had undoubtful merits in a certain period of the history of science. A scientific language cannot be developed without support of the dialogue between various spheres of scientific research work, without employment of obvious and simple models. Reductionism could not provide a foundation for the unity of scientific knowledge. But this does not mean that it was futile. It has become the source for cybernetics, computer logic, cognitive science. Nowadays, however, reductionism as a methodology makes new advances and often removes intermediate links, simplifying real processes of life and knowledge. The author uses the methodology of logical positivism to show the genesis of reductionism. He also employs the philosophy of spirit that permits to interpret man as a special kind of being, not at the «naked ape» for there is not reason to «dissolve» physics in biology. The novelty of the article is in giving credit to reductionism, in opening the meanings of reduction of the complex to the simple. Restoring the legality of reductionism, the author also shows that nowadays, when science multiplies scientific discoveries, there is a danger of eliminating the mediated links in analysis of mental and spiritual processes, in particular, of reducing psychological phenomena to the reflex of physiological processes. According to the author, mental processes are not produced by the brain directly but are of autonomous nature.
Philology: scientific researches, 2015-2
Gurevich P.S. - Grotesque of Human Existence (Review of Books Published by the Canon+ Publishing)

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0749.2015.2.15249

Abstract: In his review Gurevich analyzes different grotesque revelations of human existence expressed in art. The review provides a thorough introduction into the book of Natalya Nolde-Lurie on the creative work of a famous modern sculptor Vadim Sidur. As it is known, sculpture may have the form of symbolic plastics, sculpture in the round and reliefs. Vadim Sidur is more inclined to symbols which he uses to express the grotesque of human existence. His creative imagination relates human and universal suffering to an instrument or mechanism. This is how the threats of the world of machines are expressed. Even erotica has grotesque features in his creative work. Sigmund Freud's selected works 'Psyhoanalysis. Religion. Culture' published by Canon+ present an analysis of different aspects of human existence, too. In particular, Freud viewed religion as a special form of collective neurosis. Yulia Melentieva's work 'On Reading. Thoughts About Theoretical Aspects of Reading' shows a great role of books in the development of civilization. Hermann Hesse once stated that without book there was no history. Therefore, the decline of the reading culture has a certain negative influence on human mentality and human existence. In his review Gurevich has ued the methods of aesthetical analysis allowing to assess achievements of arts. Gurevich also bases his research on the methodology of philosophical anthropology which allows to demonstrate a complex and contradictory human nature. The novelty of the research is caused by the fact that the researcher tries to reveal the grotesqueness of human existence based on the example of the three books selected for the review. According to psyhoanalysis, nearly at birth a child faces the world of absurdity offered by culture. Instinctive desires are repressed, inherent motivation is suppressed which creates the feeling of dissatisfaction with culture. Human existence is absurd by nature because the actual history does not correspond to rationality principles. Moreover, human himself is the victim of internal conflicts between concious and unconsious, instinct and culture. One of the forms of 'dissatisfaction with culture' is the growing elimination of books from our life. For half a century Gutenberg's invention has been creating the modern culture that loses reading skills and forgets theoretical aspects of reading.  
Pedagogy and education, 2015-2
Gurevich P.S. - Eduard Spranger's Pedagogical Intuition

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0676.2015.2.15829

Abstract: German philosopher, psychological and cultural expert Eduard Spranger was a rather versatile person. He created a classification of characters that later had a considerable influence on the development of the philosophy of personality. Spranger proved the principle of the structural or so called understanding philosophy. He studied conceptual structures of the spiritual life of human as part of cultural environment. He also touched upon aesthetical issues. It is quite obvious that such an active scientist who followed the German scientific tradition just couldn't keep from discussing teaching and up-bringing issues. Spranger created a whole series of lectures on the philosophical grounds of pedagogy. He viewed the theory of educational ideals and psychology of an educator as a direct practical implementation of the results of his philosophical activity. However, Spranger stressed out that the problem needed to be researched further. In the present article Gurevich has used the methodological findings of 'understanding psychology' and methods of pedagogical research. He also relies on philosophy of education as a special branch of knowledge. For the first time in Russian academic literature analyzes pedagogical intuitions of Eduard Spranger. He also emphasizes the integral nature of Spranger's views on the up-brining of students. The German philosopher left very deep thoughts  on personality and the difference between personality and individual or individuality. In accordance with his teaching, Spranger laid special emphasis on values as the spiritual basis of personality. Gurevich also analyzes Spranger's views on up-bringing and underlines that Spranger's ideas had a great influence on Theodor Litt, one of the founders of pedagogy of culture, modern interpretation of the concepts of civil up-bringing offered by G. Kerschensteiner, O. Bolnoy and pedagogical anthropology in general. 
Pedagogy and education, 2015-2
Gurevich P.S. - There Will be a Storm, We Shall Bet...

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0676.2015.2.15850

Abstract: In his article Gurevich reviews the two recently published books, 'Reason in Revlot: Marxist Philosophy and Modern Science' by Alan Woods and Ted Grant and 'Philosophy of Science: History and Methodology of Natural Sciences' by M. Rabadanova, O. Radjabova and M. Guseykhanova. In recent years the Canon+ Publishing has pubished a great number of works related to philosophical discoveries on the society. Their purpose is to cover the scope of contemporary social researches as fully as possible. Not always the truth is hidden in the most popular social brands. Therefore, Canon+ allows researchers from different countries, of different nationalities and scientific schools to express their views on social dynamics and patterns that define the development of not only exact but also humanitarian sciences. The present article describes the two books which authors follow the same conservative tradition. In one case, the purpose of the authors is to introduce the modern variant of Marxist philosophy to the readers. In the second case, Gurevich talks about the student's book which authors, as is right and proper for such works, try to avoid discussing controversial issues or unproved knowledge. In his article Gurevich offers a critical evaluation of the methodology of Marxist philosophy. In his critics the author tries to withdraw from the polemics with the modern science and philosophy and to apply the principles of Marxist philosophy. The author also bases his review on the approaches offered by modern philosophy that do not follow dogmatics or extremes of metaphysical reasoning. The novelty of the author's approach is caused by the fact that he enables a dialogue between different worldview traditions. In due time Marxist philosophy proved the efficiency and importance of its statements. However, many provisions of Marxist philosophy were later critisized and disapproved. General critisizing of Marxist philosophy had negative consequences as it was critisized almost by everyone in the 90s. Meanwhile, new challenges were outlined and many unexpected discovered were made. Those few scientists who still followed Marxist philosophy, both Russian and foreign ones, couldn't help but fence themselves off from new paradigms and continued to prove their point of view despite the fact that their statements failed to be efficient in the new age and time. According to the author, the second book on the philosophy of science also keeps to the 'noncontroversial' manner of research.   
Philosophy and Culture, 2015-1
Gurevich P.S. - Language as a treasure of ideology

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0757.2015.1.14158

Abstract: Abstract. Language is a social phenomenon sui generis. The article shows that language as a whole is not differentiated ideologically and therefore is capable of expressing social consciousness in full scope. The problem of the interrelation between language and ideology is not confined only to the ideological relatedness of the linguistic sign. It also embraces a wide circle of problems associated with the choice of a language of communication, the attitude of society to different foreign languages, their evaluation, linguistic contexts. Linguistic purism is also ideologically conditioned. But the problem raised in the article presupposes first of all analysis of the very phenomenon of ideology. It appears now fully armed with theoretical earnestness, appealing to Marxism, psychoanalysis, post-modernism, synergetics.The article uses the method of text interpretation and standard methods of scientific research, including the method of comparative analysis, partially – methodological attitudes of hermeneutic and post-structuralist approaches to the study of texts.The novelty of the approach in the article is conditioned by modern interpretation of ideology, which was analyzed by K. Marx in his time. Now philosophy offers very deep thoughts about this phenomenon in works of such authors as Paul Ricoeur, Jean Baudrillard, Jurgen Habermas, Slavoj Žižek and other philosophers. The author turns to the work of the French philosopher O. Reboul to characterize various functions of ideology. The specificity of the article is that the author’s approach permits to analyze language from the perspective of power and love of power, to specify forms of ideological discourse.
Psychology and Psychotechnics, 2015-1
Gurevich P.S. - Zigzags of understanding psychology

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0722.2015.1.14159

Abstract: The article analyzes the philosophical and psychological heritage of Eduard Spranger. Publication of his book «Types of men: the psychology and ethics of personality» (the Russian translation by A.K. Sudakov) permits to significantly deepen the history of psychology, to ensure a higher level of comprehension of the Russian psychological school. According to Spranger, psychology is a descriptive and “understanding” but not a normative science. He consistently makes a distinction between general and «physiological psychology». The strong side of his conception is its relation to the philosophical tradition and metaphysical reflection. E. Spranger, basing upon works by W. Wundt and F. Nietzsche, turns to analysis of the spiritual life of people. He analyzes forms of life relating them with value orientations of an individual.The research methods are related to the sciences of the spirit that are opposed to the sciences of nature, in accordance with their traditional distinction. The research is centred on historical experience, «being», or the «world of life». The author is guided by hermeneutically oriented psychology and philosophy.The novelty of the article is determined by an attempt to analyze E. Spranger’s heritage in the perspective of the current state of psychology. For the first time in Russian literature, Spranger’s heritage receives critical interpretation. The article shows the indisputable achievements of this prominent author. The creation of a structural or understanding psychology is noted as fruitful, and its methodological foundations and perspectives are emphasized. On the other hand, the article shows the inadequacy of Spranger’s typology of characters. Spranger does not always coherently employ the axiological principle, and gives an incorrect characteristic of the social and political, power-interested characters.
Philology: scientific researches, 2015-1
Gurevich P.S. - The Holiness and Spirituality of Language and Literature

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0749.2015.1.14313

Abstract: The cultural process, as is known, does not develop linearly, openly, with customary acknowledgement of all achievements of this process. There might be cut-outs, losses, censor directives of official consciousness. Sometimes, productive creation of a researcher is cut by imprisonment. Other poets are undeservedly chased by oblivion. But great achievements of spiritual culture do not disappear without a trace. «A day comes, and an hour comes», as the saying goes, and the passionless spirit wins. It would be naive to believe that all this happens by itself, due to the logic of the cultural process. No, restoration of history requires selfless devotion, spiritual will that removes injustice. The mentioned books have been published thanks to incessant educational work of Svetlana Ya. Levit. For many years, she has been engaged in search for forgotten names, works and traditions. After each publication the general perspective of the cultural-historical process changes radically. The book by G.M. Pomerants is not just a research work, it demonstrates the mind of genius of our contemporary, it is a real encyclopaedia of the poetics of spirituality. Speaking nowadays about the spiritual dispute of civilizations we pay little attention to the Latin American region. And now the published book by V.B. Zemskoy opens the secrets of this civilization. Research methods are related to historicism. It is interpreted as ideological basis, cultural memory of art, essential condition of spirituality, the thread between generations. Historicism is a quality of the human soul, "universal responsiveness" (according to F.M. Dostoyevsky). The material uses also the method of hermeneutic analysis.The novelty of the article is conditioned by an attempt to bring to the readers the huge spiritual experience of literature creation, found in these books. Search for spirituality is always inspired by passion. In this sense, it might suffer one-sidedness. This individual involvement is balanced, harmonized by the passionless spirit. The reviewed books deal with literatures of Russia, Europe, Latin America. They are united by the poetics of spirituality. It makes various themes, continents and epochs closer. And taken together, these publications immeasurably widen the horizon of research work.
Pedagogy and education, 2015-1
Gurevich P.S. - The Arsenal of Cultural Enrichment

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0676.2015.1.14416

Abstract: Textbooks nowadays, as a rule, are written for students. A reason for writing this column was the publication of a manual addressed to teachers and educators – «A teacher’s book «The dialogue of cultures»: educational and methodological manual and textbook». (M., 2014). The formal theme of the manual is the dialogue of cultures. In fact, it deals with a brief but scientifically equipped analysis of the world culture represented in its civilizational dimension. Having appeared in the recent decades, the idea of establishing a dialogue between representatives of different cultures has its advocates and opponents. One thing is undoubted – without understanding of deep foundations of each culture the dialogue is unthinkable. That is why the manual is of value not only as educational material but also as a serious theoretical study.Methods of developing the theme in this article are related to the principle of historicism. Many civilizations represented on the planet are discussed from the viewpoint of their origin, specificity, and dynamics. Also, methods of comparativist analysis are used that permit to compare values of different civilizations.The novelty of the article is conditioned by critical consideration of the problem of the dialogue between different cultures and civilizations. In this connection, various civilizations are presented as specific historical entities that embody the unrepeatable spiritual experience of humankind. The article discusses the world religions that form civilizational spaces, the unity and differences of the historical process, objects of worship that form different cultural worlds. Conditions are outlined, without which the dialogue of cultures is impossible, and contradictions of this process are revealed.
Philology: scientific researches, 2015-1
Gurevich P.S. - Vladimir Kantor as a Prose Writer and Philosopher

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0749.2015.1.14921

Abstract: The article presents an analysis of prose writing of a famous author and philosopher Vladimir Kantor. In a sense, his numerous works reflect the history of the Soviet society through unique images of the main characters. Of course, Vladimir Kantor does not see himself as a story writer of previous decades. He describes the everyday life and personalities of his heroes based on his own memories ad impressions. The writer himself tells us about it. He says it does not make any sense to retell his biography because his life is all shown in his creative work. However, it is not his own life Vladimir Kantor focuses on. He describes existential experience of several generations. Vladimir Kantor's vision of the events described in his books can be associated with European and world philosophy and amazes with its profound generality and insight into human nature. In his analysis of Kantor's creative work, Gurevich applies the methods of literary research and comparative analysis. Gurevich also tries to provide a general description of Kantor's prose writing. In fact, Kantor's works have never been analyzed as an independent research subject. Kantor's books usually had brief reviews or prefaces but there is a very limited number of articles or researches devoted to Kantor. Meanwhile, the reading audience is showing more and more interest towards Kantor's books with every year passing by. This is why in his article Gurevich does not only review particular novels or stories written by Kantor but also tries to describe the writer's prose writing activity in general. Kantor's works and activity have been so versatile that they deserve to be the subject of an independent monographic research but not just an article. 
Litera, 2015-1
Gurevich P.S. - Three Focuses on Pushkin's Tragedy pp. 31-52

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8698.2015.1.15775

Abstract: Article is devoted to A.S. Pushkin's tragedy "Mozart and Salieri" in interpretations of famous Russian philosophers – S. Bulgakov, G. Meyer, I. Ilyin. It is remarkable that the Russian thinkers quite often addressed to art. Their philosophical experiences in area of literature are very significant. In this case three views of Pushkin's tragedy are compared: each of philosophers offers the option of the main conflict which is the cornerstone of this composition. So, S. Bulgakov considers that the main contents of the tragedy are interfaced to friendship dramatic art. Estimating this condition as spiritual, connected with love, he considers that tragic sense of work in treachery of friendship from Salieri. Other reading of the tragedy is offered by G. Meyer. It regards as of paramount importance a figure of the black person who ordered to the composer the requiem. Here, according to the philosopher, the main conflict of the tragedy. It is that Salieri acts in full consent with the death angel. The murder subject, thus, finds additional connotations. At last, I. Ilyin sees tragedy grain in the conflict of genius and villainy. Round this subject is also under construction its analysis of work of Pushkin. In article concepts of an esthetics which allow to consider features of the tragedy as a genre are used. At the same time the author uses also the komparativistsky method helping to reveal the general and excellent in interpretations of the tragedy the Russian philosophers. In article three views of A.S. Pushkin's tragedy "Mozart and Salieri" are for the first time compared. Each of these approaches to contents of the composition allows to comprehend the main conflict of the tragedy in a new way. In article critical evaluation of the version, according to which tragedy essence in treachery of friendship is given. At such treatment it wasn't obligatory for Pushkin to take a plot from musical practice. Besides, this look lays aside other vital problems put by the tragedy – whether is art craft, whether are compatible the genius and villainy, etc. Certainly, the analyzed articles didn't apply for the complete and full analysis of the tragedy. However taken together, they give the developed idea of interpretation of the tragedy of Pushkin "Mozart and Salieri" in the Russian philosophy.
Philosophy and Culture, 2014-12
Gurevich P.S. -

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0757.2014.12.13705

Abstract:
Psychology and Psychotechnics, 2014-12
Gurevich P.S. -

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0722.2014.12.13706

Abstract:
Philosophy and Culture, 2014-11
Gurevich P.S. -

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0757.2014.11.13237

Abstract:
Psychology and Psychotechnics, 2014-11
Gurevich P.S. -

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0722.2014.11.13437

Abstract:
Psychology and Psychotechnics, 2014-10
Gurevich P.S., Spirova E.M. -

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0722.2014.10.13007

Abstract:
Philosophy and Culture, 2014-10
Gurevich P.S. -

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0757.2014.10.13025

Abstract:
Philosophy and Culture, 2014-10
Gurevich P.S. -

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0757.2014.10.13119

Abstract:
Psychology and Psychotechnics, 2014-10
Gurevich P.S. -

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0722.2014.10.13128

Abstract:
Philosophy and Culture, 2014-9
Gurevich P.S. -

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0757.2014.9.12949

Abstract:
Psychology and Psychotechnics, 2014-9
Gurevich P.S. -

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0722.2014.9.12950

Abstract:
Philosophy and Culture, 2014-8
Gurevich P.S., . -

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0757.2014.8.12025

Abstract:
Psychology and Psychotechnics, 2014-8
Gurevich P.S. -

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0722.2014.8.12501

Abstract:
Philosophy and Culture, 2014-8
Gurevich P.S. -

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0757.2014.8.12502

Abstract:
Psychology and Psychotechnics, 2014-8
Gurevich P.S. -

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0722.2014.8.12645

Abstract:
Philosophy and Culture, 2014-7
Gurevich P.S. -

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0757.2014.7.12453

Abstract:
Psychology and Psychotechnics, 2014-7
Gurevich P.S. -

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0722.2014.7.12467

Abstract:
Philosophy and Culture, 2014-6
Gurevich P.S. -

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0757.2014.6.12132

Abstract:
Psychology and Psychotechnics, 2014-6
Gurevich P.S. -

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0722.2014.6.12252

Abstract:
Philosophy and Culture, 2014-6
Gurevich P.S. -

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0757.2014.6.12261

Abstract:
Philosophy and Culture, 2014-6
Gurevich P.S. -

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0757.2014.6.12262

Abstract:
Philosophy and Culture, 2014-6
Gurevich P.S. -

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0757.2014.6.12263

Abstract:
Philosophy and Culture, 2014-6
Gurevich P.S. -

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0757.2014.6.12264

Abstract:
Philosophy and Culture, 2014-5
Gurevich P.S. -

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0757.2014.5.11963

Abstract:
Psychology and Psychotechnics, 2014-5
Gurevich P.S. -

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0722.2014.5.12183

Abstract:
Philosophy and Culture, 2014-4
Gurevich P.S. -

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0757.2014.4.11668

Abstract:
Psychology and Psychotechnics, 2014-4
Gurevich P.S. -

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0722.2014.4.11923

Abstract:
Philology: scientific researches, 2014-4
Gurevich P.S. -

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0749.2014.4.13414

Abstract:
Philology: scientific researches, 2014-4
Gurevich P.S. -

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0749.2014.4.13432

Abstract:
Pedagogy and education, 2014-4
Gurevich P.S. - The Merits and Shortcomings of Creativity in Education

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0676.2014.4.14160

Abstract: The article analyzes the liberal model of education, which now becomes a subject of acute criticism of scholars, specialists and teachers. Having appeared in the period of early capitalism, that model enthusiastically built the scheme of free and independent education. It proceeded from the idea that schools and higher institutions should train their students to democracy and freedom of behaviour. Creativity became the emblem of such education. As was believed, students did not need knowledge but the faculty of free, critical thinking. A creative approach is certainly important in education. But first of all it should give real knowledge. Nowadays it has become clear that the copying of European educational reforms decreases the quality of education.Methods of the problem analysis are built on historicism. As expertise shows, the liberal model of education was imposed on western countries without serious scientific or social research of its validity. The comparativist method was used to compare two– liberal and conservative – models of education.The novelty of the article is that a comparison of two educational models – liberal and conservative – is performed for the first time in Russian literature. A liberal education was beyond competition for a long time. Acute criticism of this model by K. Mannheim did not change the educational practice. But nowadays it is evident that this model is outdated, does not respond to current social reality and nevertheless it serves as the basis for reforming the system of Russian education. The author comes to the conclusion that a decrease of the quality of education results from thoughtless copying of a liberal education.
Philosophy and Culture, 2014-3
Gurevich P.S. -

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0757.2014.3.11402

Abstract:
Psychology and Psychotechnics, 2014-3
Gurevich P.S. -

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0722.2014.3.11429

Abstract:
Philology: scientific researches, 2014-3
Gurevich P.S. -

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0749.2014.3.13004

Abstract:
Philology: scientific researches, 2014-3
Gurevich P.S. -

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0749.2014.3.13005

Abstract:
Pedagogy and education, 2014-3
Gurevich P.S. -

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0676.2014.3.13454

Abstract:
Litera, 2014-3
Gurevich P.S. - Poetry and insanity pp. 1-38

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8698.2014.3.14633

Abstract: Russian literature demonstrates a dangerous, in my opinion, tendency – to look at man’s spiritual world only with the eyes of a psychiatrist. Thus, there have appeared discussions about the psychotic Jesus Christ, autist Aleksander Pushkin, about schizophrenic and schizotypal disorders of Franz Kafka, Jacques Lacan, Andrei Tarkovsky, Salvador Dali, Andrei Platonov, Daniil Kharms, about schizophrenia in culture. It has been agreed that present-day postmodernism is none other than latent, in other words, «benign» schizophrenia. The strain of the mind has come to be interpreted as the beginning of insanity. Imagination as a human gift has come to be described only in the frame of morbid fantasies.The article employs methods of hermeneutic analysis of poetic texts. Also, the findings of clinical psychology and the techniques of a comparative analysis of literary texts are used.The novelty of the article refers to critical interpretation of a tradition that has taken shape in modern humanitarian thought. Man is investigated only as a defective creation, insane by his mental essence. Acquaintance with psychiatry made many researchers begin to mistrust a human being as soon as some morbid symptoms appear. So far as M. Tsvetaeva, say, reveals the secret of poetic creation: «Flowers grow as stars and as roses…», she can be regarded as a sensible individual. But then she adds: «To rebel with a verse – or to bloom as a rose…». There clinical imagination begins to work.
Philosophy and Culture, 2014-2
Gurevich P.S. -

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0757.2014.2.10848

Abstract:
Philosophy and Culture, 2014-2
Gurevich P.S. -

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0757.2014.2.10940

Abstract:
Psychology and Psychotechnics, 2014-2
Gurevich P.S. -

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0722.2014.2.11135

Abstract:
SENTENTIA. European Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 2014-2
Gurevich P.S. -

DOI:
10.7256/1339-3057.2014.2.12037

Abstract:
Philology: scientific researches, 2014-2
Gurevich P.S. -

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0749.2014.2.12204

Abstract:
Philology: scientific researches, 2014-2
Gurevich P.S. -

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0749.2014.2.12207

Abstract:
Pedagogy and education, 2014-2
Gurevich P.S. -

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0676.2014.2.13008

Abstract:
Pedagogy and education, 2014-2
Gurevich P.S. -

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0676.2014.2.13012

Abstract:
Philosophy and Culture, 2014-1
Gurevich P.S. -

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0757.2014.1.10295

Abstract:
Psychology and Psychotechnics, 2014-1
Gurevich P.S. -

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0722.2014.1.10769

Abstract:
Philology: scientific researches, 2014-1
Gurevich P.S. -

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0749.2014.1.11136

Abstract:
PHILHARMONICA. International Music Journal, 2014-1
Gurevich P.S., . -

DOI:
10.7256/2453-613X.2014.1.12189

Abstract:
Pedagogy and education, 2014-1
Gurevich P.S. -

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0676.2014.1.12195

Abstract:
Pedagogy and education, 2014-1
Gurevich P.S. -

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0676.2014.1.12254

Abstract:
PHILHARMONICA. International Music Journal, 2014-1
Gurevich P.S., . -

DOI:
10.7256/2453-613X.2014.1.12399

Abstract:
Philosophy and Culture, 2013-12
Gurevich P.S. -

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0757.2013.12.10162

Abstract:
Psychology and Psychotechnics, 2013-12
Gurevich P.S. -

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0722.2013.12.10477

Abstract:
Psychology and Psychotechnics, 2013-12
Gurevich P.S. -

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0722.2013.12.10482

Abstract:
Philosophy and Culture, 2013-11
Gurevich P.S. -

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0757.2013.11.10123

Abstract:
Philosophy and Culture, 2013-10
Gurevich P.S. -

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0757.2013.10.9423

Abstract:
Philosophy and Culture, 2013-10
Gurevich P.S. -

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0757.2013.10.9864

Abstract:
Psychology and Psychotechnics, 2013-10
Gurevich P.S. -

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0722.2013.10.10017

Abstract:
Philosophy and Culture, 2013-9
Gurevich P.S. -

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0757.2013.9.9427

Abstract:
Philosophy and Culture, 2013-9
Gurevich P.S. -

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0757.2013.9.9536

Abstract:
Psychology and Psychotechnics, 2013-9
Gurevich P.S. -

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0722.2013.9.9595

Abstract:
Philosophy and Culture, 2013-8
Gurevich P.S. -

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0757.2013.8.9412

Abstract:
Psychology and Psychotechnics, 2013-8
Gurevich P.S. -

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0722.2013.8.9413

Abstract:
Psychology and Psychotechnics, 2013-8
Gurevich P.S. -

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0722.2013.8.9425

Abstract:
Philosophy and Culture, 2013-7
Gurevich P.S. -

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0757.2013.7.9059

Abstract:
Psychology and Psychotechnics, 2013-7
Gurevich P.S., . -

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0722.2013.7.9060

Abstract:
Philosophy and Culture, 2013-7
Gurevich P.S. -

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0757.2013.7.9100

Abstract:
Psychology and Psychotechnics, 2013-7
Gurevich P.S. -

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0722.2013.7.9122

Abstract:
Psychologist, 2013-7
Gurevich P.S. - Ram Dass: Fragile Balance of Compassion pp. 41-76

DOI:
10.7256/2306-0425.2013.7.10432

Abstract: The purpose of the present research is to provide the critical review of the concept of oen of the most powerful modern spiritual Masters. Ram Dass, born Richard Alpert, is a Harvard professor and one of the first researchers of LSD. He was one of the founders of the SEVA Foundation that helped the poor and blind people. Some writings by Alpert were translated into Russian. The author of the present article analyzes Alpert's thesis about philosophy and scientific psychology never being able to have a dominating influence on the life of the humankind because they are born in our mind but not our heart and therefore their theories are created by intellect and never put into life. The author  uses the method of hermeneutic analysis of difficult texts based on the psychological experience of using LSD. Alpert's conclusions are compared to John Lilly's conception. Alpert's concept has never been analyzed in a critical review in Russian literature. Reading Alpert's works allows to see many questions of psychology in a different light. In particular,  it helps to define the borders of the rational intellect and expands opportunities of the intuitive understanding of psychic resources as well as to proves the positive role of sufferings as the ay to spiritual growth. 
Philosophy and Culture, 2013-6
Gurevich P.S. -

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0757.2013.6.8844

Abstract:
Psychology and Psychotechnics, 2013-6
Gurevich P.S. -

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0722.2013.6.8909

Abstract:
Philosophy and Culture, 2013-5
Gurevich P.S. -

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0757.2013.5.8721

Abstract:
Psychology and Psychotechnics, 2013-5
Gurevich P.S. -

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0722.2013.5.8845

Abstract:
Philosophy and Culture, 2013-4
Gurevich P.S. -

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0757.2013.4.8717

Abstract:
Psychology and Psychotechnics, 2013-4
Gurevich P.S. -

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0722.2013.4.8718

Abstract:
Philology: scientific researches, 2013-4
Gurevich P.S. -

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0749.2013.4.10480

Abstract:
Pedagogy and education, 2013-4
Gurevich P.S. -

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0676.2013.4.10535

Abstract:
Psychology and Psychotechnics, 2013-3
Gurevich P.S. -

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0722.2013.3.8670

Abstract:
Philosophy and Culture, 2013-3
Gurevich P.S. -

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0757.2013.3.8692

Abstract:
Psychology and Psychotechnics, 2013-3
Gurevich P.S. -

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0722.2013.3.8696

Abstract:
Philology: scientific researches, 2013-3
Gurevich P.S. -

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0749.2013.3.9594

Abstract:
Philology: scientific researches, 2013-3
Gurevich P.S. -

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0749.2013.3.9607

Abstract:
Litera, 2013-3
Gurevich P.S. - Literature and Hypnoid Culture pp. 110-147

DOI:
10.7256/2306-1596.2013.3.10097

Abstract: Over the last decade many Western sociologists critisizing the capitast society have underlined the hypnotic nature of popular culture. Analyzing modern mass communications Gunther Anders, Theodor Adorno, Max Horkheimer, Raymond Bauer and other authors defne modern popular culture as the 'industry of dreams'. Radio broadcasting, cinema, television are viewed as gigantic channels reproducing illusions, spreading stereotypes of feelings and behavior and creating 'hypnoid culture' playing such an essential role in the modern civilization. The aforesaid researchers view art as the reservoir of secret symbols, illusionary signs and images but not reflection of the reality. At the end of the XXI century sociologists believed that new technologies would only deepend and expand human communication and democracy mechanisms. But today many philosophers are writing about a new totalitarianism threat, mass psychotic disorders and unpredicted fears that may lead to disastrous results. 
Philosophy and Culture, 2013-2
Gurevich P.S. -

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0757.2013.2.8666

Abstract:
Philosophy and Culture, 2013-2
Gurevich P.S. -

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0757.2013.2.8671

Abstract:
Psychology and Psychotechnics, 2013-2
Gurevich P.S. -

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0722.2013.2.8688

Abstract:
Philology: scientific researches, 2013-2
Gurevich P.S. -

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0749.2013.2.8846

Abstract:
Philology: scientific researches, 2013-2
Gurevich P.S. -

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0749.2013.2.9030

Abstract:
Pedagogy and education, 2013-2
Gurevich P.S. -

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0676.2013.2.9123

Abstract:
Pedagogy and education, 2013-2
Gurevich P.S. -

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0676.2013.2.9566

Abstract:
Philosophy and Culture, 2013-1
Gurevich P.S. -

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0757.2013.1.8656

Abstract:
Philosophy and Culture, 2013-1
Gurevich P.S. -

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0757.2013.1.8661

Abstract:
Psychology and Psychotechnics, 2013-1
Gurevich P.S. -

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0722.2013.1.8668

Abstract:
Psychology and Psychotechnics, 2013-1
Gurevich P.S. -

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0722.2013.1.8669

Abstract:
Philology: scientific researches, 2013-1
Gurevich P.S. -

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0749.2013.1.8685

Abstract:
Pedagogy and education, 2013-1
Gurevich P.S. -

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0676.2013.1.8699

Abstract:
Pedagogy and education, 2013-1
Gurevich P.S. -

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0676.2013.1.8700

Abstract:
Philology: scientific researches, 2013-1
Gurevich P.S. -

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0749.2013.1.8707

Abstract:
SENTENTIA. European Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 2013-1
Gurevich P.S. -

DOI:
10.7256/1339-3057.2013.1.8932

Abstract:
Psychology and Psychotechnics, 2012-12
Gurevich P.S. -
Abstract:
Philosophy and Culture, 2012-12
Gurevich P.S. -
Abstract:
Psychology and Psychotechnics, 2012-12
Gurevich P.S. -
Abstract:
Philosophy and Culture, 2012-11
Gurevich P.S. -
Abstract:
Psychology and Psychotechnics, 2012-11
Gurevich P.S. -
Abstract:
Psychology and Psychotechnics, 2012-10
Gurevich P.S. -
Abstract:
Philosophy and Culture, 2012-9
Gurevich P.S. -
Abstract:
Philosophy and Culture, 2012-9
Gurevich P.S. -
Abstract:
Psychology and Psychotechnics, 2012-9
Gurevich P.S. -
Abstract:
Philosophy and Culture, 2012-8
Gurevich P.S. -
Abstract:
Psychology and Psychotechnics, 2012-8
Gurevich P.S. -
Abstract:
Philosophy and Culture, 2012-7
Gurevich P.S. -
Abstract:
Psychology and Psychotechnics, 2012-7
Gurevich P.S. -
Abstract:
Psychology and Psychotechnics, 2012-6
Gurevich P.S. -
Abstract:
Philosophy and Culture, 2012-6
Gurevich P.S. -
Abstract:
Philosophy and Culture, 2012-6
Gurevich P.S. -
Abstract:
Philology: scientific researches, 2012-4
Gurevich P.S. -
Abstract:
Pedagogy and education, 2012-4
Gurevich P.S. -
Abstract:
Pedagogy and education, 2012-4
Gurevich P.S. -
Abstract:
Philology: scientific researches, 2012-3
Gurevich P.S. -
Abstract:
Philology: scientific researches, 2012-3
Gurevich P.S. -
Abstract:
Philology: scientific researches, 2012-3
Gurevich P.S. -
Abstract:
Pedagogy and education, 2012-3
Gurevich P.S. -
Abstract:
Pedagogy and education, 2012-3
Gurevich P.S. -
Abstract:
Pedagogy and education, 2012-2
Gurevich P.S. -
Abstract:
Philosophy and Culture, 2009-1
Gurevich P.S. -
Abstract:
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