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Publications of Popova Olga
Sociodynamics, 2021-5
Popova O. - Commodification of the living: regulatory problems of commercialization of biomaterials in the process of development of genomics pp. 35-48


Abstract: This article explores the normative problems of commodification of biomaterials in the process of development of genomics and genome medicine. It is demonstrated that in the era of advanced biocapitalism, when the relations between capital, knowledge and life become of particular importance, biomaterials undergo an economic turnover, are viewed as the objects of property and patent law, becoming the source of gaining profit. This results in the conflicts associated with the protection of rights of the individual, whose body is the source of biomaterials. In the context of consideration of the practices of commodification of biomaterials, the author reviews different modes of relations between the individual, science and society, with the characteristic to each of them articulation of the priority of personal or public good. The article provides the ethical analysis of incidents caused by the development of genetic technologies within the framework of the mode of confrontation between the individual and science, altruistic and compensatory modes, and mode of protection of civil rights. The conclusion is made that the developing processes of commodification require finding balance between the rights of the state and the interests of individuals, public good and personal values. The right to control own biomaterials and genetic information, voluntary and free transfer of biological materials, observance of biosafety and medical confidentiality – all these problems of the development of genomics require constant ethical monitoring in each specific case of using biomaterials.
Politics and Society, 2021-2
Popova O. - Medical-genetic counseling within the system of social factors: problems and search for solutions pp. 29-39


Abstract: The subject of this research is ethical, socio-psychological, and legal problems arising in the process of medical-genetic counseling. It is demonstrated that medical-genetic counseling forms in the context of intertwinement of different social factors, and is a complex communicative process that involves scientists, medical doctors, patients, and their relatives in various forms of relationships. It is associated with myths and biases, as well as personal attitudes that distort the information about the diagnosis. It also transforms in the course of technological development. Description is given to the difficulties faced by the geneticist that affect the counseling process. The article demonstrates the peculiarities of family psychodynamics that determine the way of perception of genetic information. It is also indicated that genetic testing is aimed not only at personality of the patient, but may touch upon a wide range of relations: with relatives and friends, employers, and other interested parties. At the same time, the distribution of information on the risks of the disease may instigate discrimination against a person, stigmatization and elimination of a number of social opportunities, namely related to their professional activity. Genetic information pertains not only to physicality of an individual, but also to social body; affect the interests of the family and people living in a certain territory; bearers of common genetic information; as well as employers, insurers, etc. The conclusion is made that the process of genetic counseling based on the basic bioethical principles of autonomy, benevolence, justice, and informed consent requires additional interpretation. Based on consideration of incident A. Jolie and ethical analysis of the possibility of polygenic embryonic screening, the author reveals the peculiarities of perception of genetic information and its personal interpretation, which cause realization of the new types of responsibility in the process of genetic counseling, where the geneticist deals not with the establishment of diagnosis (fact), but with the likelihood of development of a particular pathology (prognosis).
Philosophy and Culture, 2020-10
Popova O. - New genetic technologies and the problem of anthropological boundaries: from ethics of an individual towards ethics of species pp. 1-11


Abstract: The subject of this research is the peculiarities of transformation of anthropological boundaries in the context of development of technologies of modification of human genome. Analysis is conducted on the development of genetic technologies and the questions of ethics. The author examines modern technologies of modification of human genome and demonstrates that appearance of the method CRISPR/Cas 9 accelerated the already existing and widespread in transhumanistic circles request for biotechnological enhancement of a human. In future, in the context of loosening normative regulations it would only intensify. Amplified by the emergence of new technological instrument, this request instigated the occurrence of perfectionist horizon of expectations and broadening of representations on the limits of physical and mental abilities of a human. The article employs general theoretical philosophical approach, as well as methodology of fantastic modeling and case study. The conclusion is made that within the framework of development of biology of the objects of human genesis, which are acquired unnaturally and may become the material for unlimited manipulative intervention, is always associated with vagueness of ethical standards. The edges of life and death, wholeness and inferiority of existence in this case seem indefinite, formed exclusively upon request of certain medical and research tasks. The initial stage of human existence indicated ontological uncertainty and ethical ambivalence that does not guarantee the protection of human being. Therefore, the advancement of technologies of human genome modification puts human in a problem of limiting the manipulative procedures, creation of an essential normative framework that ensures anthropological security.
International Law, 2019-1
Popova O. - Ethical approaches towards normative regulation of the use of genetically modified organisms: European experience pp. 28-36


Abstract: The subject of this research is the peculiarities of normative regulation of genetically modified organism within the European legal framework. According to the World Health Organization, genetically modified organism (GMO) are considered those, which genetic material underwent substantial changes obtained by artificial means. Such types of changes do not occur naturally, for example, as a result of mating or natural recombination. The ethical framework concept, which serves as the foundation of normative regulation of GMO in the European legal space, for a great while was associated with promulgation of the fundamental principle of precaution; as well with the new attitude towards innovation activity – the culture of precaution, established in the European cultural space. In the course of this research, the author applied the comparative legal method with attraction of a number of sourced of the European law and international law, which allowed giving a sense of ethnical-axiological components that underlies the regulation of GMO. The influence of the principle of precaution upon the formation of modern policy in the area of regulation of genetically modified organisms is presented. A conclusion is made about the paradigm shift due to transition from the policy of precaution, aimed at constraint of the potential risks of scientific and technical development, towards the implementation of innovation principle, which goal is the advancement of innovations.
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