Arctic and Antarctica - rubric Grounds of Cold Plains and Mountain Regions
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Arctic and Antarctica" > Rubric "Grounds of Cold Plains and Mountain Regions"
Grounds of Cold Plains and Mountain Regions
Buyantuev V.A., Morits R.S., Alekseev S.V. - Assessment of dynamics of permafrost thickness in the valley of the Sentsa River (East Sayan Mountains) using the dendrochronology method pp. 50-61


Abstract:   The increase of temperatures of permafrost and the corresponding increase in the depth of seasonal thawing leads to activation of thermokarst. To estimate the intensity of thermokarst process development on the Sentsa River (East Sayan), the index of the eccentricity of the radial increment in the Siberian larch (Larix sibirica) was used. It allowed gaining understanding about the compression processes over the last centuries, and forecast their strengthening in the future at increase in average air temperature of the warm period. This methodological approach is fairly universal and is not tied to any particular conditions of the locale. It can be applied in future research of the thermokarst processes, as well as other phenomena accompanying the landscape changes.  
Maslakov A. - The assessment of geocryological threats to the developed territories of Eastern Chukotka pp. 57-72


Abstract:  This article presents and tests the method of assessment of the various geocriological threats to the developed territories of Eastern Chukotka. The research is based on the complex of field geodesic, geophysical, and geocryological measurements conducted in the core settlement of the indicated region (Lorino), as well as archival data of the engineering surveys of previous years. Based on the acquired materials using the calculation methods, the author was able to determine the current geocryological situation in subsoil of the settlement along with the development level of the negative cryogenic processes and phenomena. In the course of this war was performed the assessment of threats associated with the changes in cryogenic situation and development of the negative cryogenic processes. As a result of this research, the author allocated the sections of settlement within which is traced the low level of natural sustainability of lithocryogenic ground in terms of technogenic disturbance, as well as high level of threat pertaining to decline in the carrying capacity of refrigerated piles and increase of tangential forces of frost heaving of soil.
Vasil'chuk Y.K., Bludushkina L.B., Budantseva N.A. - Experimental study of isotope composition of evaporating moisture from sandy soils pp. 62-74


Abstract: In this article the influence of drying temperature and dispersion of sandy soils on isotopic composition of water evaporated from soils is investigated. These studies are relevant for those permafrost areas, where sharply continental conditions with very warm summers and active evaporation. During evaporation water molecules with the lightest isotopes evaporate first, after then the molecules with more heavy isotopes evaporate. At high drying temperatures (180, 200, 220 °C) the isotopic composition of moisture categories in soils becomes heavier in the series: free water< transitional water < bound water. The effect of soil grain size on the isotopic composition of water evaporated from sands is more noticeable at lower temperatures, wherein the water vaporized from silty sand at the same temperature is isotopically heavier than water evaporated from medium-grained sand. For medium-grained sand portions of the condensate evaporated at a higher temperature have a heavier isotopic composition in δ18O and δ2H values, the same relationship is observed for silty sand in deuterium values, but the effect of temperature is less pronounced for silty sand in oxygen values.
Averkina T., Balykova S.D., Andreeva T.V. - Engineering-geological peculiarities of syncryogenic sands of the Russian territory pp. 64-74


Abstract: The object of this research is the syncryogenic sands developed in the territory of Russian cryolithozone. The syncryogenic sands are deposited in the upper part of the geological section and serve as foundation for multiple engineering structures; this is why their engineering-geological characteristics attains an important. The article discusses the peculiarities of the composition, structure and qualities of syncriogenic sands within the boundaries of different regions of the country: European North, Western and Eastern Siberia, Yano-Kolyma lowland and mountain-folded structures of Siberia and the Far East. It is noted that among the soils under consideration, there is a variety of granulometric differences – from gravelly to silty. The cryogenic structure is mainly massive; in silty and peaty sand soils, as well as in due to the presence of clay interlayers, it is typically laminated. Syncryogenic sands tend to have higher ice content than epicryogenic sands, and are characterized by a relatively uniform or unifromly-cyclic distribution of the volume ice content in depth. The higher is the sand dispersion, the higher is their natural moisture content and porosity, and the lower is the density of soil and soil skeleton. The fine and silty lithologies with laminated cryotexture demonstrate significantly subsidence during thawing and frequently transform into running sand. In the coastal areas, the syncryogenic sands are typically salinized. The higher is their salinity, the higher is the compressibility.
Efimov V.M., Stepanov A.V., Tappyrova N.I., Kravtsova O.N., Stepanov A.A. - Impact of the freeze-thaw cycles upon the heat and mass transfer properties of the technogenic cryogenic soil of the northeastern regions of the cryolithozone pp. 73-79


Abstract: This article concentrates on the experimental research of the heat and mass transfer properties of the technogenic soil of Yakutia that are subject to freeze-thaw cycles. Definition is given to the technogenic soils according to the GOST 25100-95. The work cites the established fact of significant difference in the coefficient of filtration of naturally located soils of seasonal layer of thaw from indexes acquired in controlled conditions. It is substantiated that there is a need to research the heat and mass transfer properties of the technogenic soils with consideration of the cyclic impact of the low temperatures and changes in the cryogenic structure for a more complete correspondence with the northern conditions. The authors analyze  the acquired data, approximate the experimental data via the methods of statistical processing and compare it with the data from other sources. The conducted research allowed determining the dependence of the thermophysical properties of the technogenic soils upon their moisture, temperature and loam content.
Efimov V.M., Kravtsova O.N., Stepanov A.V., Timofeev A.V., Vasil'chuk Y.K., Tappyrova N.I. - Research on the impact of the surface active agents upon the strength of the frozen soil of the cryolithozone of the Sakha Republic (Yakutia) pp. 80-85


Abstract: This article focuses on the experimental research of the impact of additives of surface active agents upon the strength of the frozen dispersed soils. The work touches on the problem of finding new theoretical approaches towards mechanical properties of dispersed soils accounting for presence of free surface energy and impact of the physical chemistry factors upon the behavior and properties of the soils. Substantiation is made on the physical chemistry approach as the most promising one in this area. Pyotr Rebinder’s mechanism for strengthening thawed soils through the effects of the surface active agents is presented in this research. Experimental research was conducted on the strength characteristics of the frozen dispersed soils with use of surfactants and without additives. The conducted research yielded experimental curve relationship of the maximal strength from time for frozen sand and loam with surfactants and without.
Krapivner R.B. - The problem of genesis of quaternary deposits of the Barents Sea as a reflection of the overall crisis of glacial theory pp. 80-102


Abstract: This article continues the discussion on quaternary geology and paleogeography of the vast and well-studied shelf of the Barents Sea. The object this research is the relief and quaternary formations of the Barents shelf. The data of seismic-acoustic profiling and materials of engineering-geological drilling were used. Since the Barents shelf is a high-latitude area of Holocene sedimentation, the author analyzes various aspects of the quaternary sediments genesis, taking into account the geographic zoning of marine sedimentation processes and an increase in the gravitational consolidation of sediments down through the section. The genetic link between the microstructure and the degree of consolidation of clayey sediments with their seismic image was revealed, which was considered in interpretation of seismic profiling materials. Over the Barents shelf, the cover of weakly consolidated sediments of the last marine transgression is separated from the underlying morainelike or pre-quaternary sediments by a diachronous boundary of stratigraphic and sometimes angular unconformity. The transgression is not of glacioeustatic, but of tectonic nature. During the hiatus that preceded it, an erosional relief with river valleys and their tributaries was formed, the main features of which have been preserved in the northern deep-water part of the sea. The conclusion is argued that approbation of the glacial theory on the example of high-latitude Arctic shelf contradicts the facts and main provisions of glaciology, reflecting the overall crisis of this theory.
Efimov V.M., Vasil'chuk Y.K., Rozhin I.I., Popenko F.E., Stepanov A.V. - Modeling of the temperature schedule of the soil foundations with thermal stabilizers in the cryolithozone of the Sakha Republic (Yakutia) pp. 86-97


Abstract: This article examines the issue of numerical modeling of the soil freezing-thaw process for projection of thermal stabilization system of soil building foundations in the cryolithozone of the Sakha Republic (Yakutia). The goal of this work consists in studying the process of formation of the temperature field of the massif of the soils under the effect of thermal stabilizers. Research is conducted on the process of formation of ice wall as the result of thermal exchange of the soil with the thermal stabilizers and external cool air during clearing of the snow cover from the construction site. The main conclusions of the conducted research include the need for development of mathematical models that would account for the mass exchange processes in the zones of effect of the thermal stabilizers with consideration of the conditions of formation of the cryogenic textures in the process of forced freezing of the soils. There is also a need for mathematical explanation of the phenomena of condensation and evaporation of Freon taking place inside the thermal stabilizers.
Efimov V.M., Popenko F.E., Rozhin I.I., Stepanov A.V., Bol'shev K.N. - Formation of the temperature of foundation soils during usage of thermal stabilizers in the conditions of the cryolithozone of the central Yakutia pp. 98-105


Abstract: The subject of this research is the interaction of the seasonal thermal stabilizers with the soils, processes of thermal and mass transfer and formation of cryotextures. The thermal stabilizers found broad implementation in northern construction for strengthening foundations of buildings formed with plastic and thawed dispersed soils with installation of Anti-filtration screens and ice walls. The efficiency of the work of thermal stabilizers is assessed based on the rate of formation of the calculated temperature schedule in foundations of engineering structures. The presented data of formation of temperatures of the soil foundations cooled by the liquid-vapor thermal stabilizers reflect regularities characteristic for dispersed soils of all types with various indexes of moisture and salinization for buildings with ventilated crawl spaces.  
Marakhtanov V.P. - Cryogenic deformations of pumping station building at Zapolyarnoye field pp. 98-118


Abstract: The subject of the study was to determine the causes of long-term deformation of the structures of technological equipment inside the building of the pumping station that supplies water to the industrial facilities and residential buildings of the infrastructure of the Zapolyarnoye oil and gas condensate field, located in the permafrost zone of Western Siberia, near the Arctic Circle. The main objectives of the study were to identify the mechanism of these deformations and develop practical recommendations for stabilizing structures and preventing their further destruction based on the analysis of the results. The survey was carried out using a set of methods provided for by the current legislation (visual and measurement control, geodetic works, thermometric observations in wells). The current situation at objects of such importance at the time of our study had no analogues. Analysis of the results of the structure inspection leads to the conclusion that the cause of the deformations were miscalculations in the design, construction and operation of the structure. The construction should be done with participation of specialists in the field of permafrost engineering.
Gusev E.A., Molod'kov A.N., Kuznetsov A.B., Novikhina E.S., Anikina N.Y., Derevyanko L.G., Chetverova V.A., Krylov A.V. - Key sections of the second half of the Middle Neo-Pleistocene of Yenisei North pp. 112-125


Abstract: The subject of this research is the stratigraphy and paleography of the Middle Neo-Pleistocene of the north of Western Siberia. The authors examine the sediments of the Middle Neo-Pleistocene of Yenisei North, including Taz and Shirta horizons, correlated with marine isotope stages 6 and 7. The affiliation of the explored sections to the upper link of the Middle Neo-Pleistocene was substantiated by the chronometric studies, as well as sectoral position, palynological and microfaunistic data. Special attention is given to the genetic interpretation of sediments based on the results of the author’s personal laboratory and analytical data and published records. The goal of this work lies examination of the Middle Neo-Pleistocene sediments of the Yenisei North, as well as determination of their age and genesis on the basis of comprehensive analysis of the key sections. The authors applied lithological, microfaunistic, and palynological methods of research; as well as conducted age dating via the method of infrared-stimulated luminescence (IR-OSL). The obtained dating ranging between 166 and 217 thousand years ago on four key sections, including the stratotype of the Sanchugovskaya suite. Among the sediments of the Middle Neo-Pleistocene, there are varieties from pure sands to clayey silts and unsorted hybrid rocks. The results of lithological and paleontological analyzes testify to the marine origin of sediments from the majority of the sections explored. Such sediments contain the marine mollusks and foraminifera in situ. The results can be used for revising the paleogeography of Western Siberia in the Middle Neo-Pleistocene.
Kotelevets D.V., Skobelev A.D. - The ice content and the porosity of frozen grounds of the Kharasavey gas field according to electrical sounding data pp. 116-125


Abstract: The research object is the frozen grounds of the Kharasavey gas field (the Yamal peninsula), occurring at a depth of 50 m. The purpose of the paper is to study the electrophysical characteristics of frozen grounds, depending on such factors as lithology, thawed and frozen state, water salinity, humidity and porosity. At a temperature higher than the congelation temperature, the electric characteristics almost don’t depend on the temperature, but upon getting beyond this temperature point, significant changes of characteristics can be observed – a part of interstitial water freezes and turns into dielectric ice. The research was carried out in summer 2015 and was based on the electrical resistivity tomography method with the diversity from 7,5 to 221,5 m, helping achieve the desired depth. The research was carried out using the electrical resistivity tomography station “Omega-48”. The electromagnetic survey of vertical electric sounding in the modification of electrical resistivity tomography helps detect electrical characteristics of massive materials and their spacing. On the obtained electrical resistivity tomography profile the authors extract the layer of frozen sand, but its freezing within the studied area is not solid – in the eastern part the sand freezing zone decreases due to the presence of lakes, hampering sand freezing. The authors have found the geocryological structure, resembling cryopeg in its form and structure, in the studied profile. 
Sal'va A.M. - Engineering and geological features of the soil section of the main water pipeline route in Central Yakutia pp. 119-131


Abstract: The object of this study is the permafrost soils of the section of the route of the main water pipeline «Tabaga-Byuteidyakh» in rural areas of Central Yakutia, spanning approximately 28 kilometers. Permafrost soils are widely developed in the Southeastern part of Central Yakutia, and are located on the Leno-Amginsky interfluve. They lie in the upper part of the geological section and are underlying on the lane of the main water pipeline route, as well as fall into the foundations of engineering structures of industrial facilities and hydraulic engineering construction. The study is based on a complex of field engineering and geological surveys, as well as laboratory studies of the physical and mechanical properties of rocks. The article discusses the features of the composition, structure and properties of rocks in this area. It is noted that among the considered soils, there is a variety of granulometric types, cryogenic texture from massive to layered, with clay soils usually of higher ice content than sandy ones. Technogenic loads are also mentioned in the form of objects of the main water supply system, consisting of pumping stations, pipelines, reservoirs and channels, which lead to significant changes in the geocryological environment and surrounding landscapes.
Kotelevets D.V., Vasil'chuk J.Y. - Complex geophysical study of lithalsa permafrost mounds in Sentsa river valley, Buryatia republic pp. 122-132


Abstract: The object of the study are ice-mineral permafrost mounds (lithalsas) in the valley of the Sentsa River in the Eastern Sayan Mountains (52º39.827' N, 99º29.858' E). The aim of the research is to study the internal structure of the mounds and, in particular, the depth of occurrence of ice lenses. The article examines the magnetic susceptibility of alluvial soils and entic podzols to determine the intensity of Fe illuvial process. The content of organic carbon and iron in soils was measured. Electromagnetic prospecting was performed using a symmetric four-electrode Schlumberger installation using a set of ASTRA-100 (generator) and MERI-24 (measuring instrument). The magnetic susceptibility of the soil was measured using a portable magnetic susceptibility meter PIMV-M over a uniform grid of 20 cm. The total content of Fe in soils was measured by ICP-MS. It was established that the ice lenses are located at depths of about 4 meters and have a vertical thickness of 10 meters. The presence of two separate ice lenses in the largest of the studied mounds was established. Magnetometry confirmed the high intensity of the Fe illuvial process in lithalsa soils. Ground squirrels inhabiting this area create places for the accumulation of iron compounds.
Maslakov A. - The results of active layer studies near Lorino settlement, Eastern Chukotka pp. 127-139


Abstract: The paper contains the results of active layer studies in Lorino monitoring site (Eastern Chukotka, Russia), conducted in framework of the Circumpolar Active Layer Monitoring (CALM) program during 2010-2015. The study site includes tundra landscapes of Eastern Chukotka coastal lowlands. The main purpose of the paper is to obtain spatial and temporal patterns of seasonal melting distribution and reveal the main natural factors defining active layer depth within study site. The author demonstrates the predominance of thermal forcing in active layer development, which was strongly complicated by local (microrelief, vegetation, soil moisture, etc.) conditions. These factors determined high spatial and temporal variability of active layer thickness within single grid (100×100 m). The study also reveals the lack of statistical data on natural characteristics and the need for further detailed studies of seasonal melting process.
Efimov V.M., Rozhin I.I., Popenko F.E., Popenko F.E., Stepanov A.V., Stepanov A.A., Vasil'chuk Y.K. - Arrangement of bored piles in the cryolithozone of central Yakutia pp. 133-141


Abstract: The article deals with the problems of arranging pile foundations on the territory of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) using bored piling. This technology, which is not so widespread in the republic, is simpler and more convenient, in contrast to reinforced concrete foundation piles. In the process of hardening concrete during the arrangement of the bored pile, local fission of frozen soil occurs. Therefore, when using bored piles in the cryolithozone, the problem of determining the design temperatures and the time of formation of the stationary soil regime at the base of the entire pile field, which allows full loading of the foundations, becomes especially critical. Field observations of the temperature regime of soils near the bored pile during its arrangement and hydration of concrete were carried out. In the course of the study, data was obtained on the dynamics of the temperature regime of the soil near the bored pile in the process of its arrangement. The data obtained show that stable negative temperatures over the entire depth of the well are observed one month after pouring, during which period the pile attains most of its strength.
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