Arctic and Antarctica
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Arctic and Antarctica" > Contents of Issue № 04/2019
Contents of Issue № 04/2019
Natural resources of the Arctic and Antarctica
Skrylnik Gennady Petrovich G.P. - Multifaceted interrelations and interactions between substrates and geomorphological processes in the south and north of the Far East pp. 1-15


Abstract: The object of this study is the Far East, located in a steadily active transition-contact zone of the two greatest structures of the Earth – the Asian continent and the oceans, and Arctic and Pacific oceans.The subject of this study is the nature of the relationship and interaction of relief formation and substrates (litho-, chion - and phyto -) generated by the three spheres of the physical and geographical shell of the Earth and composing the upper horizons of its solid shell.The goal of this work is to elucidate the multifaceted relationships and interactions between substrates and geomorphological processes in the south and north of the Far East.The data (1955-2011) of the author's research, as well as available literary and stock sources are used. Comparative geographical and information methods were used in the analysis.The novelty of the study lies in the fact that the substrates involved in relief formation in different climatic conditions of the Far East, differ in unique appearance and organization. Results obtained from original materials, with the relevant data from the literature, can be useful in choosing the strategy for environmental management in all of the areas where it must be utmost "gentle", taking into account existing risks and their identified environmental constraints.
Permafrost and ground ice of the Arctic, Antarctic and mountain regions
Budantseva N.A., Vasil'chuk Y.K. - Hydrogen isotopes and deuterium excess in recent growing ice wedges of northern Eurasia pp. 16-32


Abstract: The subject of this research is the variation of deuterium isotopes and values of deuterium excess in recent growing ice wedges, with age of about 100 years, penetrating into growing ice wedges on the territory of the Russian permafrost. Variations of oxygen isotopes in recent growing ice wedges were previously studied in more detail. The joint determination of the isotope-oxygen and isotope-hydrogen composition will allow considering the additional cryogenic fractionation during ice vein growth in frost cracks. The main approach to the study is field sampling of recent ice veins that usually occur under interpolygonal wedge. The authors obtained new results of isotope data for recent growing ice wedges on the coast of the Chukotka Peninsula and summarized data from publications of the last 15-20 years. The main conclusion of the study is the confirmation of the predominantly atmospheric origin of moisture filling frost cracks. Another important conclusion is the fact that limited cryogenic fractionation usually accompanies the freezing of melted snow after it fills the frost crack.
Chizhova J.N., Vasil'chuk Y.K. - Difficulties in the isotopic indication of the genesis Yamal's massive ice. Part 1. Marre-Sale pp. 33-51


Abstract: A review of published isotopic data on Yamal Peninsula massive ice near Marre-Sale polar station showed that there is a number of difficulties in indicating the genesis of the ice formation. The published data of δ18О and δ2Н of sea water in the Yamal Peninsula coast are disconnect to idea of participation of this sea water as a water source for ice formation. Comparison with the correct δ18О and δ2Н values of waters of the Barents Sea made it possible to establish the process of mixing seawater with isotopically light precipitation and showed that seawater was involved in the formation of ice. Another difficulty was the erroneous idea of ice formation in a closed system. Formation of ice occurred in an open system with a large amount of free water. Massive ice was most likely formed at the clay-sand boundary from free water, which in large quantities entered the sandy aquifer from lake talik. The water in the lake at the first stage was a mixture of sea and atmospheric waters, and then it was desalinated. The process of desalination and isotope depletion of lake water is responsible for a decrease in the δ18О and δ2Н values of ice with depth.
Khimenkov A.N., Koshurnikov A.V., Sobolev P.A. - Laboratory modeling of gas filtration in permafrost pp. 52-73


Abstract: The subject of this research is gas filtration in frozen rocks. For the first time, in laboratory conditions, it was possible to identify the processes that accompany gas filtration in frozen ground. Particular attention is paid to the study of deformations of primary cryogenic textures during filtration of gas under pressure. The features of the propagation of gas fluids in a frozen sample are analyzed. A comparative analysis of the cryogenic structure of frozen samples with and without gas supply has been carried out. The mechanism of pressure filtration of gas in frozen rocks is formulated. When studying frozen ground samples subjected to pressure gas, we used the methods of texture and structural studies in transmitted, reflected and polarized light. To identify changes occurring in frozen samples under pressure from gas, a comparative analysis method was used. At the same pressure, at low temperatures of the samples, filtration does not occur. Filtering begins when the temperature rises to -1 - -2 ºС. In nature, these relationships are determined by geological, landscape, and climatic conditions. For the first time, in laboratory conditions, with the help of structural studies, it was possible to identify the processes accompanying gas filtration in ice.
Belova N.G., Babkina E.A., Dvornikov Y.A., Nesterova N.B., Khomutov A.V. - Permafrost sediments with massive ice beds at Yugorskiy Peninsula coast pp. 74-83


Abstract: In September of 2019, sections of permafrost quaternary sediments were surveyed 5 km east of the Amderma settlement in the area of the Pervaya Peschanaya Lagoon. In this region, massive ground ice beds are numerous. They are classified by researchers as either, intrasedimental formations or buried glacial ice. In order to reconstruct the conditions for the formation of permafrost deposits, massive ice bed with a thickness of more than 4.5 m was described in detail. The structure of massive ice and overlying sediments is described. The ice texture and structure are characterized, and samples are selected to determine the content of stable oxygen and hydrogen isotopes in the ice, as well as the content of methane and composition of the main cations and anions. The studied massive ice bed is covered by loamy sediments with shell fragments. The peculiarities of the cryolithological structure of the section (conformable upper contact of the ice bed, horizontal layering in the ice, gradual decrease in the content of ground inclusions in the ice down the section) speaks in favor of the hypothesis of ice formation as a result of slow freezing of the host sediments. There are no signs of burial of glacial or other type of primary surface ice in the structure of ice bed or host sediments.
Surface Processes in Cold Plains and Mountain Regions
Aleksyutina D.M., Maznev S.V., Belova N.G., Shilova O.S. - The influence of the permafrost processes upon erosion at the Ural coast of Baydaratskaya Bay, Kara Sea pp. 84-96


Abstract: The study of coastal dynamics and associated permafrost processes is a relevant issue in connection with the active development at the Russian Arctic coast. In addition to wave and ice effects on the coastal dynamic, the shores composed of permafrost unlithified sediments, permafrost (cryogenic) processes have a significant effect: thermoabrasion, thermodenudation, thermokarst, and linear thermoerosion. The purpose of this study is to quantify the impact of various cryogenic processes upon the coastline retreat rate on a key site at the Ural coast of the Baydaratskaya Bay, Kara Sea. Coastal retreat rates were estimated based on the interpretation of satellite images (QuickBird-2 2005, WorldView-1 2012, WorldView-2 2013, WorldView-2 2016) and field leveling surveys in 2013, 2014, 2015 and 2017 for zones with prevailing exogenous processes. As a result, coastline rates were obtained under the influence of various cryogenic processes. The revealed differences showed a significant contribution of these processes to the coastal dynamics, along with the geological and geomorphological structure and different time-periods. The performed quantitative estimation will allow conducting more substantiated modeling and forecasting for the development of certain sections of the Russian Arctic coast.
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