Arctic and Antarctica
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Arctic and Antarctica" > Contents of Issue № 01/2016
Contents of Issue № 01/2016
Legal regimes of Arctic and Antarctica
Toropov E.F. - The Arctic in the context of optimization of development of the Russian Federation pp. 68-74


Abstract: This article discusses the exploration of the Arctic in the context of optimization of socioeconomic development of the Russian Federation. These issues are particularly relevant due to the fact that the Arctic increasingly becomes a sphere of interaction and cooperation of different states, as well as the point of exerting of their authority, political-military, and economic power. In the author’s opinion, the Russian Arctic is a region of certain geostrategic interests of the state and long-term economic interests of society, primarily from the perspective of development and rational use of natural resources along with maintenance of the global ecological balance. The formation of a coherent system of incentives for the development of the Arctic zone, requires the formulation and adoption a special law, which is able to set the principles of state policy and mechanisms of its implementation in the Arctic. Its defense is a question of national prestige, honor and dignity of the great power, which Russia still is.
Human, Arctic and Antarctica
Goncharov V.V. - On certain questions of the Antarctic legal status pp. 75-79


Abstract: This article is dedicated to the current legal status of Antarctic. The author notes that despite the fact that this continent has been discovered by the researchers some time ago, its geographical and climatic peculiarities do not allow it to be used to the fullest extent. Moreover, the legal status of Antarctic even back in the 1960’s was based on the following principles: international character of land use; demilitarized character of the territory (with possibility to use exclusively for peaceful civilian purposes); prioritized scientific research of the Antarctic territory. However, currently, a number of problems complicates the determination of the legal status of Antarctic: firstly, there are some disputes between the countries regarding the attribution of the certain parts of Antarctic to the zone of interests of the particular national state; secondly, the number of countries who have just become the leaders in global economic development (for example, China, and India) experience difficulties with admission to the territory of Antarctic; thirdly, at the UN level there is no unified international legal act, governing the Antarctic, which would be adopted by all of the world countries; fourthly, there is no efficient mechanism for verification of the use of Antarctic by various foreign states, particularly as the place of storage (disposal) of nuclear radioactive waste or place of displacement of nuclear weapons and other military equipment; and fifthly, the absence of the organizational legal mechanism of holding the violating countries accountable.
Proshkina V.A., Khoroshikh P.P., Sergievich A.A., Lekhanova F.M. - Climatic effect of the Arctic regions upon the development of adaptational health resources of the children population of indigenous people pp. 80-85


Abstract: This article is dedicated to the review of the main research associated with the study of adaptational potential status of the health of children among the representatives of indigenous population of Arctic regions of the Russian Federation. The latest research demonstrate that the growing body is affected by multiple stressogenic factors in the conditions of Arctic. Starting from birth, we can trace the negative influence of climatic and environmental factors, which becomes the cause for various maladaptive reactions and decrease of the reserve homeostatic mechanisms. All of these factors lead to the formation of various noninfectious chronic diseases. General analysis of the conducted in Arctic regions research of the health status of children population allowed determining the main regularities of the adaptive potentials of health. The author suggests that the health of children population residing in Arctic territories requires particular attention, which is caused by the low birth rate, as well as growing number of various pathological conditions and chronization of diseases. For improvement of the aforementioned situation it is necessary to run an early comprehensive diagnostics regarding the character of the delinquency in development of a child.
Climates of the Arctic and Antarctica
Vasil'chuk Y.K. - Spatio-temporal distribution of mean January air temperature over the Russian Arctic during 30-12 ka BP with high temporal resolution pp. 86-103


Abstract: The palaeoreconstructions of the mean January temperatures based on the distribution of δ values (oxygen isotope composition) in the Late Pleistocene ice wedges in yedoma dated by radiocarbon are yielded. Verification of the equation linking current data of δ values in modern ice wedges with mean January temperatures has been done. In yedoma of different regions of the Russian Arctic formed 30-12 ka BP made the analysis reliability of radiocarbon ages. It is enabled to set on the time scale the isotopic events with high temporal resolution - with step 2-4 ka. New maps of the mean January palaeotemperatures for the time intervals 30-28, 24-22, 20-18, 16-12 ka BP are created for the Russian Arctic.
Soils of Cold Regios
Vasil'chuk J.Y., Krechetov P.P., Litvinskiy V.A. - Isotope and geochemical composition of carbonate soil new growths of the Julukul basin, the Altai Mountains pp. 104-115


Abstract: The research subject is carbonate dripstones and pendants on the lower surfaces of coarse clastic rocks, typical for the regions with sharply continental arid climate. Calcareous crusts, pendants, are complex bedded bodies, containing both carbonate and silicate materials with thin patches of organic material. The width of pendants varies from 2 to 7 mm. The studied new growths are located within the cryoarid soils’ profiles of the Julikul basin. The key characteristics of isotope and geochemical composition of carbonate pendants are: the oxygen and carbon isotopes composition and the gross number of macro- and micro elements. The research methods include: the mass-spectrometer measurement of the isotope composition, the x-ray and fluorescence analysis of the gross number of macro- and micro elements, the gas-volume method of measurement of disperse carbonates ratio in soils and the method of ion chromatography for the measurement of water-soluble carbonates. The authors characterize the isotope and element composition of carbonate pendants. Carbonate new growths in cryoarid soils are presented basically by calcium carbonates, but the materials of new growths often contain silicon, aluminium and ferrum. Among the measured materials, MN, Sr, Cu and Cr have the most significant concentrations. There is a tendency to the weighing of the isotope composition of carbon and the lighting of the isotope composition of carbon from the internal to the external layers of carbonate pendants. These data prove that the environmental conditions were changing during the pendants formation. 
Lanscapes of Cold Regios
Vasil'chuk A.C. - Palynological characteristics of the stages of succession of the arctic and subarctic tundras pp. 116-123


Abstract: The subject of the study is the subfossil pollen spectrum from polygonal tundra of different succession stages: the formation of a framework of vegetation and overgrowing patches of polygons. It is established that local components of the pollen spectrum are basic information on the stages of succession. Determination of the sequence of changes in the dominant pollen taxon in the process of typical succession enables the allocation of such sequences for pollen plots, allowing to more objectively assessing the changes in biocenoses. We also analyze the pollen spectrum features during the development of waterlogging and pyrogenic succession reflected in the palynologic signal. The main research method is the palynologic analysis of surface samples and interpret the results in relative stages of succession. The main conclusions of the study is allocation of the standard sequence of dominants on pollen plots, which correspond to the stages of succession. Pollen dominants sequences are detected migration of woody vegetation to the North by open ground, eutrophication of lakes, overgrowing of polygons in the Arctic tundra, as well as for pyrogenic succession
Permafrost and ground ice of the Arctic
Budantseva N.A., Chizhova J.N., Vasil'chuk Y. - The reflection of mound landscapes development phases of Bolshezemelskaya tundra in the peat isotope composition pp. 124-138


Abstract: The research subject is the peat permafrost mounds on the northeast of Bolshezemelskaya tundra. The authors study the permafrost mounds at different stages of development – from the adolescent and growing to the mature and broken. The mature permafrost mounds are from 3 to 4,7 m high; some of them have the signs of primary breaking in the form of stains of bare peat or cavities on the surface. The height of adolescent permafrost mounds usually doesn’t exceed 1,5 – 2 m; the broken mounds look like peat mounds, surrounding the lows. The width of peat, superposing the mounds, varies from 0,8 to 1,2 m on mature mounds to 0,3-0,6 m on broken mounds. The authors sample the peat on mounds and lows (at 5-10 cm intervals); establish the radiocarbon age, the composition of carbon and nitrogen and the isotope composition of peat carbon. Radiocarbon dating shows that the studied mounds had formed in the period of Holocene optimum; the highest mounds formed about 7,7 – 4,8 thousand years ago. The authors show that within the limits of the studied mound landscapes in Holocene, the conditions of water intrusion, the composition of vegetative cover and the temperature of vegetation periods continually changed. Peat accumulated in the conditions of high water intrusion; the permafrost condition of peat had determined its low decaying and humification. Both in the period of Holocene optimum and at the present time, permafrost mounds develop cyclically, that is determined by both climate changes (air temperature and the snowiness of winters) and local factors, including the change of masses humidity. 
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