Architecture and design - rubric History of architecture
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Architecture and design" > Rubric "History of architecture"
History of architecture
Badikova K.S. - Experience of the profitable houses at the turn of the XIX - XX centuries and housing of the "rented house" type in modern Russia pp. 1-11


Abstract: The author in this article examines the experience of profitable houses in pre-revolutionary Russia at the end of the XIX-beginning of the XX century and the problems of the residential real estate market such as rental houses in modern Russia of the XXI century. The article reveals the content of the concepts of profitable house and a rented house, and also shows their development.The author focuses on the similarities and differences between profitable house in pre-revolutionary Russia and rented housing in modern Russia in the form of a comparative table. The accumulated historical experience of the construction and operation of profitable houses is necessary for the construction of modern profitable houses, since at present the construction of this type of housing has a certain demand.The main conclusions of this study are that for a hundred years in Russia the concept of an profitable (rented) house has not changed significantly.As in pre-revolutionary times, today rented houses belong to one owner and are built specifically for renting for a fee, mostly apartment buildings are being built.The main differences are that modern rented houses are divided (approximately) into social and commercial use, while the structure of the house has changed: state, municipal and (or) other support is assumed only for the construction and operation of a rented house for social use, there are no benefits for commercial use (which is why private business is not developed).
Mingareeva R.R. - The development of normative requirements for buildings of preschool educational institutions pp. 9-19


Abstract: Preschool education is intended for acquiring primary skills and knowledge. This is facilitated by the conditions in preschool educational institutions. The subject of this research is the normative requirements for preschool educational institutions. The goal lies in analysis of the development of normative requirements for preschool educational institutions. The task is to examine the basic technical regulations in the sphere of preschool education, as well as determine the changes in normative regulations. The research leans on the scientific materials on the topic and the content of the normative legal acts. The research material includes the results of scientific research on this topic and the content of regulatory legal acts. The article provides general characteristics to the development of normative requirements for pre-school buildings. The concept of “kindergarten” is introduced in the Building Code II-64-80. The normative legal acts outline the layout and architectural solutions of the buildings. Relevance of this topic is substantiated by the development of pre-school education aimed at improving accessibility and availability of place in preschool educational institutions; for this purpose the new ones will be built. The research relies on the historical development of architectural regulations, standard projects of Soviet period, sanitary and epidemiological requirements, greening of territories, modern architecture; reconstruction of preschool buildings in modern urban environment. The conducted analysis of the scientific works of the experts reveals the following peculiarities: historical development of architecture of preschool buildings in the Soviet period and emergence of new types; requirements for land allocated for this purpose; reconstruction of the existing preschool buildings. The first technical regulations set the basic requirements for project design and allocated land, standard values for indoor areas, noise and insolation levels; sanitary and epidemiological rules were established later on.
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