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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Architecture and design" > Contents of Issue є 02/2021
Contents of Issue є 02/2021
History of architecture
Badikova K.S. - Experience of the profitable houses at the turn of the XIX - XX centuries and housing of the "rented house" type in modern Russia pp. 1-11

DOI:
10.7256/2585-7789.2021.2.37188

Abstract: The author in this article examines the experience of profitable houses in pre-revolutionary Russia at the end of the XIX-beginning of the XX century and the problems of the residential real estate market such as rental houses in modern Russia of the XXI century. The article reveals the content of the concepts of profitable house and a rented house, and also shows their development.The author focuses on the similarities and differences between profitable house in pre-revolutionary Russia and rented housing in modern Russia in the form of a comparative table. The accumulated historical experience of the construction and operation of profitable houses is necessary for the construction of modern profitable houses, since at present the construction of this type of housing has a certain demand.The main conclusions of this study are that for a hundred years in Russia the concept of an profitable (rented) house has not changed significantly.As in pre-revolutionary times, today rented houses belong to one owner and are built specifically for renting for a fee, mostly apartment buildings are being built.The main differences are that modern rented houses are divided (approximately) into social and commercial use, while the structure of the house has changed: state, municipal and (or) other support is assumed only for the construction and operation of a rented house for social use, there are no benefits for commercial use (which is why private business is not developed).
Architecture and technologies
Pakhomov P.S. - Historical experience of geological research and foundation construction on the example of the city of Norilsk. pp. 12-19

DOI:
10.7256/2585-7789.2021.2.38153

Abstract: This article analyzes the experience of geological exploration and construction on the example of the city of Norilsk, and also discusses their problems. In 1935, it was decided to build the Norilsk Metallurgical Plant and the village of Norilsk was founded. During the geological survey and construction, many problems arose, these include: - the spread of permafrost soils, and subsequently the thawing of soils acting as the base of buildings and structures; - a small number and scattered location of rocky soils suitable for use as a base; - limited technology capabilities; - long time and huge costs when using as a base, rocky soils. Those problems mostly arose due to the lack of experience in building foundations on permafrost, Norilsk is the first experience in this regard. To solve the problem of permafrost, the Norilsk Integrated Department of the Krasnoyarsk Institute "Promstroyniiproekt" was formed in 1959. The solution to the problem was found at that time by Mikhail Vasilyevich Kim, who was appointed to the post of head. The method of pile foundation in permafrost consisted in freezing the pile into the frozen ground. Thus, this method allowed not only to solve the problem with the construction of foundations on permafrost, but also to use it for construction purposes.
Legislation and regulations
Ozhgibesova K.E. - Historical periodization of the development of standardization and rationing to create an affordable living environment for people with limited mobility pp. 20-28

DOI:
10.7256/2585-7789.2021.2.37194

Abstract: The article is devoted to the topic of creating an accessible living environment for people with limited mobility in urban life. It is based on the timely introduction of norms and standards for the design of an accessible environment, with the help of which the standardization of the formation of living conditions for the qualitative transformation of the environment of a modern person takes place, increasing the level of quality of his life. The purpose of the study: to substantiate the historical periodization of the development of standardization and rationing to create an affordable living environment for low-mobility citizens in Russia. The subject of the study are standards and norms for the design of architectural objects with the formation of an accessible environment for MGN. Material base: the results of scientific research on this topic and the existing regulatory framework in the field under study. Research methods: theoretical Ц analysis, synthesis, modeling; empirical Ц study of various sources of information, analysis of received and collected data. The relevance of the research lies in the fact that at present the topic of creating an accessible environment for MGN has acquired special relevance and attention at the international level, since it concerns issues of liberality, equality and humanity, which are among the dominant moral ideas of modern progressive society. The chosen path of research is poorly studied, while there are enough studies in the following areas: features of the formation of an accessible living environment; analysis of the domestic regulatory and legislative framework for the formation of a barrier-free urban environment; development of ways to improve the effectiveness of measures to develop an inclusive environment in the interests of disabled people, etc. In this paper, norms and standards for historical periods in the field of designing infrastructure facilities are considered, taking into account their adaptation to the vital needs of low-mobility citizens. The result of the study is the given justification for the historical periodization of standardization and rationing to create an affordable living environment for MGN on the territory of the Russian Federation.
Erbyagina M.V. - Regulatory and legal regulation in the issue of integrated development of urban areas pp. 29-38

DOI:
10.7256/2585-7789.2021.2.37323

Abstract: The article examines and analyzes the experience of urban planning activities in the field of urban development from the 1990s to the present. The object of the study is the housing sector in the field of urban development management. It is proved that the existing mechanisms of urban development Ц integrated development of territories and development of builtЦup areas - have a number of disadvantages. Also, in the course of the work, the features of the application of the new regime of integrated development of the territory are considered and, based on the analysis, recommendations are proposed for improving economic efficiency and further development of legislation in the field of management of the development of the city's territories.The relevance of the work lies in the fact that the current mechanisms for managing the development of urban areas, which are used by the authorities, have not proven themselves as cost-effective tools that ensure the implementation of the necessary goals for the integrated development of territories (hereinafter - the CRT). Therefore, an important problem is the analysis of the problems of the regulatory framework in the issue of integrated development of urban areas. The purpose of the work is to develop recommendations and directions for improving the regulatory framework in the issue of increasing the economic efficiency of urban development. Research objectives: - to conduct a general analysis of urban planning theory in the development of mechanisms of urban areas; - to identify problems arising from the application of existing mechanisms; - to determine further directions for the development of urban planning legislation in matters of urban development. The study is based on an up-to-date formed base of regulatory and legal documents on the issues of integrated development of urban areas, the accumulated experience of their use in managing the development of urban areas.
Economy of architecture and urban development
Kropotukhina N.A. - Foreign̆ and domestic̆ experience in assessing the quality level of residential̆ real estate pp. 39-46

DOI:
10.7256/2585-7789.2021.2.37460

Abstract: The subject of the study is the quality management of construction products. Improving the quality of construction is extremely important, as it prolongs the life of residential buildings and reduces their operating costs. In this regard, the analysis and comparison of foreign and domestic approaches to assessing the level of quality of residential real estate objects will reveal the directions of development in the field of improving the quality of housing in our country. The article studies foreign and domestic systems of management and quality control of construction, highlights the parameters and principles of the quality system of foreign countries, interaction with other organizations, quality organizations, regulatory documents, according to which a comparative analysis of existing systems is carried out. Many countries have a high level of quality of their products, in particular construction. Improving the quality of construction in our country is also very important, as this increases the service life of residential buildings and reduces the cost of their operation. In this regard, analyzing and comparing the foreign and domestic approach to assessing the quality level of residential real estate, you can see the directions of development in the field of improving the quality of housing in our country. In this study, in order to identify quality control systems for the construction of residential real estate in different countries, the following characteristics of such control systems are adopted: (1) the principle of the quality system, (2) interaction with other organizations; (3) the supervisory authority; (4) regulatory documents. The characteristics of construction quality control systems adopted in this study are considered as the experience of such use in developed countries. The foreign experience in approaches and principles of control systems in Russia is investigated.
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