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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Architecture and design" > Contents of Issue № 04/2018
Contents of Issue № 04/2018
Theory of urban development
Kemenov D.A. - Definitions and concepts of sustainable development with regards to low-rise construction pp. 1-7

DOI:
10.7256/2585-7789.2018.4.30093

Abstract: The subject of this research is aimed at revealing of the ideas of the modern Western urban doctrines on the categories and concepts of sustainable development in the organization of living environment in the forms of low-rise construction. The goal of this work lies in determination and analysis of the essence of definitions and concepts of sustainable development, established within the framework of the modern Western urban doctrines, in historical evolution of the theory of sustainability in construction and architecture. Over the recent years, a pressing issue becomes the creation of convenient environment in urban area.  Solution to problems in the logistics of urban traffic, ecological situation and psychological health of the residents can become the refusal of the dense high-rise housing. Research methodology of lies in examination of the experience of Western urban theories of sustainable development of housing on the materials of international symposiums and seminars dedicated to the advancement of urbanization and its environmental pillars. The results may be used in development of the modern theoretical concepts and practical implementation of the ideas of sustainable development in the field of low-rise construction. The conclusions demonstrate that the functions of sustainable development of low-rise construction overall interlink with the for basic task groups in social, economic, technical, technological, and ecological. These four vector will help to increase the financial and economic savings, reduce the impact on the environment, improve efficiency and utility, as well as affect the quality of optimization.
Projecting methodology
Artemev K.R. - Historical development of regulations for the design of preschool educational establishments pp. 8-21

DOI:
10.7256/2585-7789.2018.4.30066

Abstract: This article aims examine and analyze the main changes occurred in the regulatory framework for the design of children's institutions. The author demonstrates that on one hand, the emergence of sanitary and epidemic requirements improves the ecological condition of the territories of children's institutions, while on the other –  it reduces the standards imposed on the maintenance and equipment of such facilities. This leads to the fact that the pivotal role in the arranging interesting and diverse recreational area for the children in preschool educational establishment (PEE) is entrusted to the designers, management, and employees of PEE. The main research methods contain determination, comparison and analysis of several regulation that have been historically applied in designing of the preschool educational establishments. The uniqueness of the subject of research, namely the evolution of requirements towards designing of territory of the preschool educational establishment, defines the scientific novelty of this study. The author examines the origins and development of the terms “childcare center” (day care, nursery, preschool educational establishments); highlights the main stages in formation of childcare centers in Russia; explores the normative sources of various years that determine the historical trends (in form of a comparison chart) of changes in the regulatory framework for the design of PEE, as well as the requirements that underwent minor changes. The article reveals the primary trend in evolution of regulations for the design of childcare centers: sanitary rules and regulations contain not only the rules for the design, but also the description of sanitary and epidemic requirements (with regards to safety) for proper care and health maintenance of the children.
Construction and architecture
Gunenko E.D. - The peculiarities of formation of background radiation in buildings on the example of Krasnoyarsk Region pp. 22-30

DOI:
10.7256/2585-7789.2018.4.30029

Abstract: Radon concentration in the air of residential and public buildings is quite acute is a serious concern. Studies conducted in the territory of the Russian Federation, including Krasnoyarsk Region, are aimed at both, the determination of factors forming the indoor background radiation, as well as specific measurements of normative values. Collection and analysis of data, in turn, will allow systematizing such problem as indoor radon concentration, and provide an effective approach towards the implementation of antiradon protection. The article attempts to review and analyze the main sources of the release of radon, using the example of Krasnoyarsk Region, as well as compare the radon load received by the population of Krasnoyarsk Region with such received by the residents of other regions from the particular sources of radon exposure. The article generalizes the experience with regards to radiation situation, acquired over a relatively short history of the existence of this issue in the territory of Russia. Special attention is given to the formation of radiation background in residential and public buildings located in Krasnoyarsk Region, as well as new studies in this field.
Architecture and technologies
Sazanakova K.A. - The problems of energy and economic efficiency of the systems of hinged ventilated facades (an overview of recent research) pp. 31-36

DOI:
10.7256/2585-7789.2018.4.30012

Abstract: In the conditions of reduction of the natural energy resources and relevancy of the problem of energy conservation and increasing of energy efficiency of buildings for modern architecture and construction, there emerged the need for examination and development of the technical-economic conditions for increasing the efficiency of energy conservation systems, including the hinged ventilated facades. Ventilated facades represent a modern technology for protection of buildings from the impact of atmospheric effect, as well as giving a modern look to the obsolete objects. The subject of this article is the technical-economic peculiarities determining the energy efficiency and energy conservation potential of the system of hinged ventilated facades. The research methodology is based on the theoretical approach, with application of the methods of analysis, comparison, generalization and synthesis of scientific publication, as well as the experience in construction and reconstruction of buildings using the systems of hinged ventilated facades. The author was able to determine the cause of low efficiency of such systems – the unaccounted heat-conductive elements in the thermophysical calculation. Fire safety of the hinged ventilated facades is also being explored. The scientific novelty consists in the acquired conclusions that the plan of reconstruction of buildings using the hinged ventilated facades is associated with a number of issues (formation of the low-temperatures zones at the attachment points of heat-conductive elements; presence of hazardous materials and elements; low durability and minor economic effect), which can be resolved by using the advanced materials for anchoring systems alongside optimization of thermal and humidity regime with regards to each individual case. The conclusion is made that the problems emerging in operation of such system lead to decrease of thermophysical properties of the façade and require further research.
Economy of architecture and urban development
Zaitseva I.V. - Economic content of development strategies of border areas of the Far Eastern Federal District with achieving the urban development potential pp. 37-43

DOI:
10.7256/2585-7789.2018.4.30032

Abstract: The subject of this research is current large-scale and comprehensive development strategy of the Far Eastern Federal District, which implies the development of territories possessing a unique economic-geographical and transit position, as well as long border with a densely populated foreign state. Directions within the framework of this strategy allow achieving the urban development potential of the Russia’s side of the border, namely create an additional network of small, medium, large localities, and ensure sustainable development of the existing ones. The author comes to the conclusion that comprehensive implementation of strategies of the Russian Federation carries delayed character, and the key indicator, represented by the population size, will not increase unless the region boosts its productive capacity, followed by the improvement of living standards, and thus, migration inflow and natural population growth. All these processes combined allow achieving the urban development potential of the region, as well as the border areas. The strategies implemented by China are aimed at the promotion of economic ties through expanding the urban development.
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